The Age Regression Writer's Guide


Table of Contents


Storyline Creation and Plot Development

Characters as People

The Maguffin or "How Did I Become Involved in this Mess?"

The Clues to the Protagonist's Doom or "How Did I Ever Miss the Import of What She Was Saying and Doing?"

Fatal Flaws or "Why Was I so Blind?

The Premise: The Gateway to a Moral Meaning and the Hidden Lesson

Meaning: The Hidden Lesson

Viewpoint: A Tool for Emotional Exploration

The Principle of Justice

Conflict and Resolution

The Triad of Denouement: Story Premise, Conflict Resolution and Climax

Creating a Story Climax

The Final Line of the Denouement

The Writer's Toolbox

How to Create a Step List

Pushing the Reader's Buttons

How to Write Adult Dialog that Won't Bore the Reader

Writing Resources; Dictionaries, Thesauri, Encyclopedias, the Internet and Catalogs

Contrasting Genres: How to Structure Storylines in the Major Fiction Genres of Fantasy and Science Fiction

The Fantasy Genre

Science Fiction Genre

A General Introduction to AR-Horror

The Main Theme: Constructing Stories in the Age Regression-Infantilist Sub-Genre


A Comprehensive List of Personal Relationships with Notes Delineating the Difficulties Employing them in a Storyline

Lifestyle Changes that a Character Who is Rejuvenated into Infancy Will Experience

Development of Culture in a Child

Appendix A: Writing Tips

Appendix B: An AR Author's List of Rejuvenation Devices

Appendix C: Baby Accouterments: A Writer's List of Furnishings and Supplies for the Fantasy Infant

Appendix D: An Adult Gourmet's Professional Taste Evaluation of Commercial Baby Food

Appendix E: Babble and Babytalk: A Writer's Guide to Creating Childish Dialog

Babytalk Structure


Grammatical Structure

Pre-speech Vocalizations and Sound Effects

Regressive Speech

Organization and Formatting of Infant Dialog

Word Choice Criteria


Speech Development as a Function of Age

Babytalk Lexicon

Adult Words & Infant Idioms

Descriptive Words & Definitions

Appendix F: Developmental Milestone Chart for Children

Physical, Sensory, Cognitive, Linguistic, & Behavioral Milestones From Birth to Eighteen Years




All AR stories' themes have embedded in the premise or lesson, some measure of domination. AR stories can be subdivided into the AG or non-AG classes where the protagonist changes gender or not. This document will concern itself mainly with the second class, because many of the writing principles delineated here can be applied to the first class as well. Unwilling AG is a more severe form of domination for a male wherein he is not merely verbally castigated as a straightforward AR story, but is literally castrated by means of the transformation. Usually, the antagonist is a female, who reduces her victim to the age of child with the implied promise that she will be the caretaker. In the cases where the antagonist is a male, then the caretaker tends to be the mother, wife or girlfriend of the protagonist and is an accessory to the deed. Indeed, since the physical reduction of an adult into infancy tends to posit a secondary character who will care for the resultant infant, female domination and loss of control to a woman become important themes in the Age Regression (AR) sub-genre.

AR writing itself can be subdivided into two categories: Fantasy and Science Fiction, although there is some interplay between the two. Although a means to regression must be created for a properly written AR story it does not constitute a basis of division. Magickal regression can partake of either genre, being either a Science fiction device or a Fantasy device. The major difference between the two worlds is that Science Fiction as a genre describes a change to the protagonist's entire world instead of the Fantasy genre where the change is confined to the protagonist himself. Thus, it is possible to write a Science Fiction story whose technology is magickal or a Fantasy story whose technology is wholly scientific.

Important note: If the story has a third agent, such as a genie or demon to effect the change, then the story is by definition a Fantasy story. If the storyline describes changes to the entire world, then the story is by definition a Science Fiction story.

Realistically, it doesn't matter which class the story falls into as long as certain rules of writing are observed. There is a fair amount of overlap between the two genres so the point is somewhat moot.

This document will begin by describing basic ideas in story writing and how to create a believable storyline. Then it will move on to the basic concepts of writing in the Fantasy and Science Fiction genres without regard to AR writing in particular. At the conclusion, a special AR-Infantilist section will describe those techniques needed to create an outstanding AR story-Infantilist. Because of the strong contrasts that an author is able to develop when the protagonist is regressed into full infancy, this document will primarily concern itself with that sub-genre although most of the techniques can be used for any regression below the pubescent level. At the end of the document I have provided a number of reference Appendixes to make AR story construction easier. The writing tips in Appendix A apply to any genre of fiction writing and although short, are well worth perusal.

Storyline Creation and Plot Development

Characters as People

The most useful insight into people for an author is that people never really grow up. Men in their sixties play with automobile engines and dream of becoming race car drivers just as they did when they were ten. Women's coffee klatches are often replays of the tea parties that they had when they were five years old. People's daydreams may become more detailed as they become older, but with the exception of sexual elements, their dreams may not change substantially from when they were quite young. A little girl of five fantasizes about having a house and baby of her own. The same girl may mature into a young woman who have the very same dream as she toils at her secretarial job as a single woman. When people are pushed to their limits, they have a tendency to regress to childlike behaviors that have the merest patina of adulthood. A grown woman who hears a strange noise in the night may rouse her husband to go to the living room and investigate as if he was her father. A tired man might demand that his wife feed him whenever he is hungry and pick up after him as if he was a helpless child.

If a man becomes ill, his training usually allows him to wallow in regressive behavior. Women must make meals and take care of the children whether they are ill or not, but most men have never risen to this responsibility. Because of their expectation for coddling, most men become infantile when they are ill. There are few men who can resist the temptation to regress into virtual toddlerhood when they are sick.

The worst case of this particular syndrome occurs among physicians. Physicians are notorious among the nursing staff at hospitals as patients. Because they are used to being in positions of authority, the sick male doctor combines the helpless demands for attention with his previous authoritarian position. His medical knowledge gives the ill doctor countless dark thoughts of serious illnesses that he may be suffering from. The result is an intractable male patient who demands constant attention and who is unwilling to wait or accept no for an answer. In short, they become frightened babies who need the constant attentions of their nurse.

The aspiring author should observe his or her workplace and draw parallels between Kindergarten and the corporate setting to see the truth of this observation. Managers have temper tantrums like four-year-olds when they don't get their way. Men and women form small groups to talk the way they did when they were five to ten years old. When the world grows dark for adults, they tend to run back to their parents for comfort as they did as children.

Adults with drug or alcohol problems experience this phenomena in spades. The drug/alcohol makes them ineffective and forces them into a dependent role with their spouse. Their unlucky spouse may be forced to undress them at night for bed and get them up to go to work in the mornings. If they're hungover, the spouse may have to call their spouse's boss and tell him or her that the person has a twenty-four hour virus and cannot come into work, forcing the spouse to act like a parent with a wayward child. If they're too drunk to drive, the spouse may have to tell her partner that she won't permit him to drive in such a condition. This can result in either the drunken spouse having a tantrum, or passively accepting a childlike position in the household.

Drunken or heavily medicated people may also wet their pants or the bed while they're sleeping. This resurrects the historical feelings of guilt that the person suffered during toilet training and automatically places them in a child role vis-à-vis their spouse. Imagine how it must feel to be a man who has wet the bed in a drunken state to be roused and pulled from their bed by his wife. He must stand idly by the bed in a sleepy condition while wearing his pee-sodden underwear while he watches his wife strip the bed and remake it with fresh bedlinens. While he stands by the bed wearing steadily cooling wet undies, she berates him for wetting the bed like a toddler.

The AR author in particular should be aware of this phenomena and exploit it to it's fullest. If everyone is a child at heart, then it is relatively easy to draw parallels between an adult's behavior and a child's behavior. Both men and women can become whiney under stress making them appear to sound like children when they complain. Men are not brought up to be housekeepers and have a tendency to make messes that they don't clean up. In addition, the male anatomy sometimes causes their urine stream to shoot off at an angle rather than in the toilet bowl that they're aiming at. It is also not unknown for the stream of urine from a penis to be directed at such an acute angle that sitting on the toilet seat merely causes it to be deflected upwards and outside the toilet even though the man is sitting down, thus creating an embarrassing puddle on the floor or wetting the pants and underwear which are pooled at their ankles before them. Statistically, men don't wash their hands or wipe themselves as often as women do. Also, because men are in high stress positions more often than women, they tend to have anal hemorrhoids more often than women which occasionally leads to a light soiling of the rear of their underwear.

Men are the perfect target for the AR writer. They tend to be less mature and more self-conceited at any age then women. In general, they lack the social skills which might divert trouble and let a problem become a crisis so they can attack it head-on with all their physical and mental prowess. If this approach is used during a situation while they are being regressed into infancy, their normal stratagems fail utterly. Men's mental strength is derived from three sources; belief in their physical power gives them courage, their social position lends them credibility and their mastery of language gives them the skills to overcome obstacles. Once their physical prowess, social position and linguistic powers of adulthood have been stripped from them, men become helpless children and the story of their reformation at woman's hands can begin.

For example, consider the following vignette:

"As the puff of smoke dissipated, the fate of the man was revealed. He had been magickally regressed into a drooling, nine-month-old infant who knelt on all fours at his wife's feet. He crawled forward a bit and heard a crinkling noise as he moved. He stopped and put one hand down to feel his bottom and discovered thick cloth covered with a layer of plastic. With a start, he suddenly realized that he was wearing nothing but a bulky cloth diaper and plastic panties. He tried to yell at his wife, but all that came out of his mouth was an infant's babble.

He rapidly glanced around the room to check his surroundings. What he saw made him dizzy with disorientation. Everything had become enormous and terrifying. The coffee table that he'd marred with the heels of his shoes by propping them on it's waxed surface had suddenly become level with the top of his head. The couch that he'd carelessly throw himself into every day looked like a fabric covered blue mountain. When he tried to look up to see his wife's face, he discovered the he had to tilt his head all the way back to his shoulders to enable him to see his wife towering over him. As he lifted his head to look pleadingly at his wife, he realized how helpless he'd become. He had a vague memory of slapping her the night before in a drunken rage. Memories of beating his wife rushed into his mind. He had mistreated his wife in the past with the arrogant knowledge that she could not retaliate. Everything had changed. Now the shoe was on the other foot.

As he looked into her eyes, there was not a hint of sympathy. The glint of anger from her eyes told him that her rage was consummate and their wasn't anything he could do to change her opinion of him. He knew he was a failure as a husband and a man. The talons of the vengeful harpy that his manifold sins had created from his loving wife would soon descend upon him to collect a painful justice from his body. His head bent as he averted it from the soul penetrating gaze of his wife as he huddled close to the carpet in remorse for what he had been and done. When he looked up again, he saw his wife smiling in triumph with her hair brush in her upraised hand. He knew with absolute certainty that he was going to be brutally spanked on his bare bottom in the next few minutes and that there was nothing he could do to stop his wife from exacting a painful revenge on his behind for the acting like the monster he had been.

Fear gripped his stomach and he began to panic as the realization of his utter defenselessness set in. Terror made his bladder and bowels void their contents into his diapers. He began to weep in humiliation at his fall from power. He realized that his power had vanished and he was at his wife's mercy. As he looked up again with tear-streaked cheeks into his wife's smiling face, her pleased countenance told him she was aware that he'd peed and pooped himself. He knew that she was aware that she ruled the household and she could retaliate in any way she wished for his sins against her. He cowered in fear as his wife mercifully put aside the hair brush and bent down to carry him up to the nursery she had created in the spare bedroom in anticipation of his transformation. He whimpered and hid his head in her shoulder as she held him close to her chest, securing him to her with one palm propping up his diapered bottom as she mounted the stairs.

His wife smiled maternally as she laid him down on the changing station and began removing his plastic pants so she could change his diaper. His diaper wasn't the only thing of her husband's that she planned to change…"

The Maguffin or "How Did I Become Involved in this Mess?"

The Maguffin is the plot device which draws characters into the story. For example in the story, "Rockabuy Baby", the protagonist is in the drugstore to pick up his prescription for his allergies while the antagonist is there to stock up on disposable diapers for her victim/clients. Each of them has their own Maguffin for being in the drugstore. Often it is necessary to create a Maguffin for each character in the story. If on the other hand, a character has friends or colleagues, his friends or colleagues may be drawn into the story by loyalty or organization. For an example, consider the ending of "Rockabuy Baby" where the super-antagonist Becky brings along the Coven to assist her with meeting out justice to Krystyn and the baby. In this case, the Coven and Becky share a common Maguffin.

Important Note: Make your Maguffins believable or the story will fall on its face.

The Clues to the Protagonist's Doom or "How Did I Ever Miss the Import of What She Was Saying and Doing?"

Since an AR story should lead up to the protagonist's regression, it follows that there must be a fair amount of action and dialog before the transformation. During this stage, clues to the protagonist's fate must be carefully buried in the actions and dialog that will give an astute reader Godlike foreknowledge of the protagonist's immediate future. For example, in "Rockabuy Baby", when Andrew and Krystyn go to her minivan to drive to her house, Andrew notices the worn look of the baby seat in the back. Logical reasoning would make a rational person wonder how long she had owned the seat and how many babies had ridden in it. Since it is not common practice for owners of Adoptive Services to drive around all day with a baby in the back seat of their car, the implication is that she had owned the seat for a number of years. Agatha Christie's detective novels were prominently mentioned to make it clear this was a clue that something wasn't right. When she took him home and they toured the house, the clues became clear and ominious. Her dark bedroom with a blood red canopy over the wrought iron bedstead that looked like a living plant that had been magickally changed into dead metal was a clue that Krystyn was allied with forces that were anti-life. The red and black tapers in the candlestick gave a hint of Black Magick. The sense of power that exuded from her room should have told him that all was not right. The nursery was obviously a prison for its diapered inmates. A metal framed door, an extremely deep and heavy dark wooden crib should have made him run in fear for his life. Clues are not just parts of mysteries, but form an essential part of the moral lesson. The central concept is that in stories, just as in everyday life, there are obvious clues that tell the character what is about to happen. It is important that the author subtlety delineate why a character missed the clues. The reason the character missed the clues is important because it constitutes the character's Fatal Flaw. In Andrew's case above, it was his sexual lust for Krystyn that blinded him to reality.


Fatal Flaws or "Why Was I so Blind?"

Every character has a fatal flaw which leads to his downfall. Drunks, womanizers and drug users have obvious fatal flaws. Fatal flaws are part of the Weltlichkeit or world view of the character. For that reason, their flaws make them edit out the parts of their existence that conflicts with how they wish their world to be. Thus a man can be completely purblind to a clue that everyone else considers obvious. Fatal flaws make the character more human and thus more believable. In the Star Wars movies, the android-robot, C3PO, was made human by making him a coward. His particular mission in "life" was to overcome his cowardice to become a brave robot like his companion, R2D2. Give the protagonist a fatal flaw that is both common and understandable by the audience if you want them to identify with the protagonist in the story. Axe-murdering serial rapists make poor protagonists and trite antagonists. The reader should be able to identify with both the protagonist and the antagonist to some degree. Both must have Weltlichkeits that are self-consistent and rational considered from their viewpoint. In heroic myths, the character overcomes his fatal flaw to succeed and become the hero that was hidden inside. In Greek tragedies, the hero is destroyed by his flaw. In the general Science Fiction genre, the hero overcomes his fatal flaw and transforms the world. In Fantasy, the hero overcomes his fatal flaw and is transformed. In AR-Infantilist fiction, the protagonist either allows himself to become regressed or is regressed because of his fatal flaw. The flaw itself is transformed by the rejuvenation. Babies are not permitted to be drunks or drug users, nor do they have the necessary equipment to be womanizers. Their regression has brought them back to a state of relative innocence.

The Premise: The Gateway to a Moral Meaning and the Hidden Lesson

Just as your English teacher probably taught you in High School that every paper must have a thesis, every story must have a Premise. The Premise is the central idea that ties the story together. Ideally, the Premise leads inexorably to the moral meaning and hidden lesson behind the story. Consider the AR story, "The Drunk". The Premise is that it's bad for a man to get childishly drunk on a regular basis. This leads to the moral; being a drunken, uncaring husband is bad because it makes him less than a man. In turn, this leads to the hidden lesson that if the reader selects this course in life, his infantile irresponsibility may force others around him (his wife, for example) to assume the role of his parent while his life is reduced to the level of control that he can safely manage by himself, i.e., life as an infant.



Meaning: The Hidden Lesson

Stories are about revelation. The meaning of the character’s life evolves through the story through conflict. When the final resolution of the character’s problems occurs, the protagonist can see his relationship to the world. The protagonist’s foibles and flaws become apparent to him as he undergoes his personal revelation. The character of the protagonist changes as a consequence both of his insights and the condition he finds himself in. The protagonist realizes that he can never go back to what he was. He has changed forever. This is the essence of revelation; it is the knowledge that changes one’s life. Revelation redefines the character’s relationship to the world. It’s important to realize that the reader undergoes that same revelation as the protagonist. The protagonist’s revelation is the readers revelation. Just as the protagonist is changed by the cosmic knowledge he has obtained, so is the reader.


Viewpoint: A Tool for Emotional Exploration

Story Viewpoint is a valuable tool in the hands of a master storyteller, it sets the tone of the story and defines the limits of knowledge that the reader may have about a given scene in a story. The master storyteller will choose the viewpoint carefully for the effects he wants to produce. In the hands of an inept storyteller it is a curse, the story will change viewpoint without warning an leave the reader wondering if the storyteller has lost direction. The following lines give a thumbnail description of the use of each.

First Person: Allow the storyteller to express his intimate feelings about the actions and the other character, but story can only be seen from one viewpoint. Useful for surprise and suspense situations where the story hinges on the final twist or surprise but it's extremely limited otherwise.

Third Person: Allows the storyteller to describe the intimate feelings of all characters or if the storyteller wishes, no feelings may be described at all. It’s best to include the feelings of characters if possible to mimic the reader’s experience in life. The people that a reader sees every day have expressions, tones and body language that "telegraphs" the person’s emotional state. A storyteller may choose to exclude the expressions and emotions of the characters in situations where the characters are members of a group that the storyteller wants to ‘dehumanize’ by making them emotionless robots going about their tasks. It’s a ploy that can be made to work, but is seldom successful for use throughout a story. Readers expect to "see" the emotions of the characters they read about. People want to read about people and a character without any emotions will be seen as less than human. In general third person is the best overall mode for telling stories.

The Principle of Justice

The Principal of Justice requires that the characters be treated justly by the storyteller, i.e., that the characters be accorded a fate that is determined by their actions. If the character must be punished by the Gods, his punishment must be equal to the crime. To punish the character more than he deserves is unjust and demonstrates the inherent sadism or moral turpitude of the Gods. If the character is punished less than he deserves, it illustrates the lack of concern of the Gods. Unless the point of the story is to display how unfair and capricious the Gods are, the storyteller should strive to find a balance between the crime and it’s consequences. In the end, the reader will correctly assume that the storyteller has the qualities that he has imbued his Gods with. A storyteller whose tales are filled with injustice and cruelty will be perceived as morally and ethically deficient.

Important Note: NO ONE EVER thinks they are in the wrong. Everyone believes they have done the right thing, the best thing for themselves. This principle applies to both the Protagonist and the Antagonist.

A good story is a type of morality play where the characters play out their feelings, aspirations and flaws against a fantasy backdrop. The difference between real life and a story is that in a fantasy story anything may happen. As a consequence, the ‘adjustment’ to the character that would normally take place in the framework of real life takes on fantasy proportions.

Therefore, do not have the characters punished unless their fault and fatal flaws require a response from another character or ‘Cosmic’ re-balancing to address the flaw. It is a given that the character will think him/herself innocent and has been unfairly treated. (All felons are innocent in their own eyes and have been treated in a grossly unfair way by the system. Another way of saying this is to recognize that people who wrong others and refuse to acknowledge their error have the moral development of toddlers.)

Conflict and Resolution

All storylines deal with conflict and resolution. Whether the storyteller is an Native American jongleur sitting at the campfire telling the story of the various paths a warrior may take or a Hollywood writer hammering out a script about a Columbian Drug Lord and his inexorable path to downfall, the stories are the same in one respect; they tell the reader/viewer about the problems a fantasy person encounters and how this imaginary person deals with them. Conflict gives definition to the story. Without conflict, the character has nothing to strive for or against. There can be no profit or loss in such a situation, only ennui. The character of the protagonist is defined by the struggle he is engaged in. If the struggle is for good, the protagonist is a protagonist. If the struggle is for power and domination, the character is an antihero. It’s important to realize that no one in real life is purely good or purely evil. It’s a mistake to make a protagonist purely good or evil, readers will not be able to identify with a protagonist that’s either too good or too evil. The protagonist loses his believability and becomes a mere comic book caricature. This is a fatal error in storytelling.

The Triad of Denouement: Story Premise, Conflict Resolution and Climax

The premise of the story revolves around the moral. For example; Drunks make bad husbands and everyone in the relationship would be happier if he was a turned into baby who drinks formula from baby bottles rather than the booze from fifths of liquor he drank as an adult. The moral is the lesson of the story and is inherent to the premise. In the case above, the moral is drunkenness is bad.

Conflict Resolution is ofttimes confused with the climax. The resolution is the idea which solves the essential problem as opposed to the climax when the resolution is implemented.

A "Resolving Conflict" often occurs after the climax to tie up loose ends and prove the story premise in more complex stories.


Creating a Story Climax

  1. Create a surprising climax for the story. Although an astute reader can predict the main line plot dénouement, a serendipitous twist at the end makes the finale entertaining.
  2. Be merciless in exploiting the reader's emotions; get them involved with the character. Tease them with the possibility that the antagonist (or protagonist if the story has a horror storyline) will escape his doom. Then cut off all hope of retrieval at the last minute with the final action that seals the character's fate. Make the reader feel as if he has fallen into an bottomless oubliette from which there is no escape.
  3. Issue a final verdict in the Court of Poetic Justice. Make the villain pay dearly for his sins. Allow the villain to understand the consequences of his actions. In AR-Infantilist stories, this principle mandates that the regressed character retain his adult mind until it is clear there is no escape.

The Final Line of the Denouement

Just as the first line in a story sets the mood and tone of the story, so does the last line of the story. The final line is the author's last word on the theme and properly managed, it can give a reader nightmares in a horror storyline or reduce them to tears as in a tragedy. Usually the climax and denouement are simultaneous, but not always. Sometimes a resolving conflict must be employed to finish the story off, or the author uses the opportunity to give the reader one last gut-wrenching verbal punch to conclude. Authors often lay out a story with the beginning and ending in mind and then write the middle to connect the two pieces. Sometimes an author will create the story with a single statement in mind for the end and write the entire story to give it "punch" at the end. If the story ends weakly, then the whole effect of the story is lost. The author needs to leave his reader feeling shaken and a little woozy from the final lines. A story that peters off in the end is a failure. If the author reads his work and decides that the end lacks emotional "grip", then he should write a final line that meets his requirements. Then he can either; change the ending slightly to match or (my favorite) change the title to match the ending and add details and subplots to support the last line as a resolving conflict.



The Writer's Toolbox

How to Create a Step List

A Step List is merely a short list of actions that lead from the beginning of the story to its conclusion. It can be as detailed or as bare as you like. Remember that a Step List is not an outline to be turned in to a Professor of Literature, but a simple list to help you keep track of the action. It is an excellent place to place notes about scenes and subplots as your story grows more detailed. The best advice I can give is to keep it simple; don't clutter it up with headings and subheadings unless that is what helps you most. Don't even worry about being grammatical; the list are only notes to help you work. I don't use headings at all, instead, I use something like the following format;

  1. Boy meets girl at drugstore, boy is timid and slightly embarrassed as he looks over diapers. Girl likes him and invites him home. They go to minivan. She has infant seat in backseat. It appears worn.
  2. Girl gives boy tour of house. House appears okay, but girl's bedroom and nursery are foreboding. She makes coffee and secretly phones friend from kitchen to come over.
  3. The Transformation: the girl says she is out of coffee, but her friend who has brought her baby along offers the boy some "virgin" <pun> (from unused bottle) milk from baby bottle. Boy doesn't want to appear ungracious so doesn't refuse. Boy drinks "milk" laden coffee and begins transformation.
  4. After transformation, women explain that they are witches and that girl's business is rejuvenating men into infant's that she can illegally sell for adoptive purposes.

As the ideas develop, I add to each section with ideas that I don't want to forget. For example, in the above Step List, I had an idea about a Siberian sleigh ride being as dark an foreboding as the nursery. To make the nursery have the same "ambiance", I created the concept of a crib that resembled a deep-sided Siberian sleigh and added a detailed description under section B so I wouldn't forget to add it when I got down to writing that part of the story.

Step Lists can help you when you have a specific scene (or several scenes) in mind but are not sure how to connect them. Write out as much as the Step List as you can and begin writing those scenes. From the behavior of the character, it is usually possible to divine some sort of McGuffin and insert an area in the Step List where the character should reasonably appear.

Pushing the Reader's Buttons

Everyone has emotional buttons that can be exploited. Within a general genre like Fantasy, the buttons are so copious that they can't be enumerated. More specific sub-genres like AR-Infantilist (horror) have well-known emotional "hooks" that may be exploited by the author.

In general, writing "hooks" fall into three major classifications; reverse emotional transference where the reader identifies with the emotion that the protagonist is feeling, object interest such as advanced weapons in an Action or Science Fiction story or baby items in an AR story and lastly, fantasy identification; for example, in an AR-Infantilist story, the reader imagines that he himself is being regressed into infancy.

Examples of AR emotional hooks:

  1. Reverse emotional transference (reader identification):
  1. Humiliation at being treated like an infant
  2. Anger towards the "evil" mother figure who has reduced the protagonist to an infantile state
  3. Feelings of helplessness and dependency after being regressed into infancy
  4. Self-hatred and despondency when the protagonist discovers that he secretly enjoys being babied
  5. Being renamed to a babyish name to emphasize his new station in life. (See the section on Character and Baby names.)
  6. Passive acceptance of an utterly hopeless situation
  7. Full acceptance and love for the mother figure
  1. Object Interests:
  1. Diapers (I cannot stress how important diapers are to an AR-Infantilist story. They must be described in intimate detail along with the associated diaper changes.
    1. Cloth diapers: For readers who have a strong interest in cloth diapers, descriptions of the soft, fluffy feeling a flannelette diaper gives the baby is a must. Also, a warm, wet cloth diaper makes the wearer feel like his genitals are being softly "caressed" by the sodden fabric. However, this same "feature" coupled with plastic pants can lead to diaper rash.

Soiled cloth diapers must have their solid contents rinsed (or dumped) in the toilet before they are placed in a diaper pail with wet diapers for storage until it's time to wash them. Since ammonia is a very small molecule, it diffuses across the boundaries of most plastics and can escape through the smallest holes. It is nearly impossible to contain the smell of "soured" diapers while they sit in their pail awaiting wash day. The difference between an unoccupied nursery and a nursery which has a baby in cloth diapers can be distinguished by the first whiff of ammonia as a character enters the room. The combination of old baby poop, sour milk and sour diapers give nurseries their characteristic "baby room" smell.

Important Note: An infant's ability to smell is a hundred times more powerful then the same individual's abilities as an adult, although infants do not have the programming for the social mores that define the difference between "good" and "bad" odors. As such, fecal material, sour diapers and sour milk are not considered "bad" smells by an infant, rather they are the "homey" smells of everyday existence. The association of smells with particular feelings or acts is programmed into the infant subconscious by constant repetition as a baby goes through his day.

For example, consider a baby whose mother lovingly cleanses him at each diaper change while she coos down maternal murmurings of what a pretty baby boy he is as she lightly dusts him with baby powder. When she has finished the diaper change, the mother picks her son up in her arms and cuddles him. Thus, an association will be formed between the sweet vanilla perfume of baby powder and the feeling of being clean and cuddled.

Writers should be intensely aware of the psychological power of descriptions of odors, aromas and perfumes and how a mere reference to the proper scent can bring forth a flood of pleasant memories for the reader. If properly employed, descriptions of smells within a scene are an insidiously powerful technique that leaves the reader wondering just what is happening to him as he reads the story. The odors and aromas that the protagonist experiences in a scene are important details whose inclusion or neglect can make or break the description of a scene.

Cloth diapers should properly be dried on a clothes line in the wind and Sun for maximum sterilization to be effected. The ultraviolet radiation from the sunlight kills the bacteria that cause diaper rash. The breeze will keep wrinkles from forming and keep the fabric light and fluffy. Many readers are familiar with the inviting "sunny" fragrance of line dried diapers and are highly attracted to their aroma. Note that the sight of diapers drying on the line can either be a help or a hindrance to the story. If the neighbors are used to the sight of diapers, then they will take no notice of them. But if they are not, then they will instantly know that there is a baby in the house. If the baby's presence is to be kept secret, then the backyard must have a high wooden fence in an area with single story houses or they must be dried in a clothes dryer. If a plausible excuse for the baby's presence can be concocted, then there is no problem. The author is invited to imagine the still ambulatory, but preschool to toddler aged protagonist's dismay when he is either sent out to play or follows his "mother" into the backyard and sees his diapers flapping in the breeze as they hang on the line, advertising his condition to the entire world.

For cloth diapers, pins must also be used and can be uncomfortable if the child sleeps on his side. If the protagonist has an adult mind and tries to unfasten the pins, he will discover that although he may understand the locking mechanism, the weakness of his infantilized finger muscles do not permit him to open the pins. Bulkiness is a problem that may be exploited to make the character waddle like a toddler. In general, cloth diapers require a waterproof covering of some sort. If one is not used for whatever reason, than the mother will most likely put a waterproof lap pad (a pair of thin flannel outer layers are bonded to both sides of a small [12"x12" to 14"x14"] inch rubber sheet)

Waterproof pants and Coverings:

    1. Soft Plastic Gerber style pants or panties: Emphasize how they feel and sound as the character moves. Leaks are common with this type of covering.
    2. Rubber pants: Favored by the older reader, there are a number of younger readers who also like the feeling of rubber against the skin of their legs and abdomens. This is an institutional type pant which doesn't leak as frequently as plastic pants.
    3. Early diaper covers: These may be remembered by readers of forty-five to fifty years of age and older. When they were first introduced, they were little more than an hourglass-shaped fitted plastic sheet that was pinned to the baby's diapers. Unless the baby was quite young and unable to turn or move himself, they leaked everywhere. The primitive plastic formulation "aged" quickly and cracked readily. There is a trend today to return to this type of cover using more advanced plastics, but the inability to keep the bedlinens dry will make this type of covering too much work for mothers unless either are stanch eco-minded individuals or their baby has problems with prickly heat or diaper rash where a large amount of ventilation is necessary.
    4. Diaper covers: Generally made of fabric with a waterproof lining and velcroed fasteners, these are the current rage among the fashionable and well-to-do. Unfortunately, they tend to leak more than either plastic or rubber pants. These should be considered fashion items for going out in public.
  1. Disposable Diapers
    1. Standard disposable infant diapers are appreciated by the younger reader who spent their infancy in such diapers.


      1. They are always fresh and clean out of the package. (This has an implied connotation of giving the protagonist a "fresh start" every time his diaper is changed. Subconsciously, the reader is given the illusion that the character may escape his fate.)
      2. They usually have a strong "baby powder" perfume. (This is useful for story descriptive purposes. Strangely, the cheaper and more leaky a baby diaper is, the heavier the perfume tends to be.)
      3. Soiled or wet diapers don't have to be stored before washing. (This makes them perfect for public outings.)
      4. They are taped on rather than pinned. For storyline purposes, the disposable is perfect for the first diaper if the protagonist is either unconscious or asleep when he is diapered; the pins that a cloth diaper would have will not dig into his side as he sleeps and make him uncomfortable. Aside from the plastic covering and absorbent padding, a diaper is indistinguishable from underwear while someone sleeps if the bedroom or nursery isn't so hot that the disposable produces excessive perspiration in the crotch area.
      5. Also, the reduced size and strength of the protagonist's fingers makes it difficult, but not wholly impossible for him to remove the tape from diaper by himself. This is very effective if the protagonist removes his diaper in adult disgust while standing in his crib or playpen and suddenly finds himself helplessly peeing. The sudden realization that he actually needs a diaper is very effective and mortifying. When caught, the naked baby may find himself being spanked over his "mother's" knees for disrobing himself and making a puddle on the bedlinens.

      6. They may be constructed with colored nursery prints appropriate to an infant. (Note: Wearing prints like these will heighten the protagonist's sense of humiliation.)
      7. They puff up visibly after a heavy wetting, making it obvious the baby needs an immediate change. Readers who are familiar with the absorbent material's behavior in this state will react positively to descriptions of how soft and fluffy the diaper becomes around the crotch area and may enjoy descriptions of squeezing the wet mass.



    1. The plastic covering is inherently noisy. (This is perfect for humiliating the protagonist)
    2. After extended wear without wetting, the absorbent padding tends to "ball up" underneath the paper cover and become uncomfortable "paper marbles" in the bottom and crotch of the diaper.
    3. The waterproof plastic covering makes air passage difficult and leads to excessive perspiration as well as a build up of ammonia, thus causing rashes.
    4. They hold heat and may become excessively hot in warm weather or under thick layers of winter clothes.
    5. They cannot easily be "doubled" for an older baby or child as can cloth diapers. Although diaper "doublers" can be added for additional absorbency, disposable diapers must be purchased in the correct size for the baby's weight,
    6. They have a tendency to leak.

Important Note: Most AR-Infantilist readers have strong predilections towards either cloth or disposable diapers. Unless you are trying to reach a specific audience, have the protagonist wear both at different times to please everyone.

    1. Nipples, baby bottles, thumbs and pacifiers: Appeal to the oral personality. Smoking, drinking from beer bottles and an excessive fondness for sweets are indicative of this sort of personality in an adult. Secretaries who suck on pencil erasers are also exhibiting this form of common behavior.
    2. Food:

The food that an individual eats defines his culture as well as his age. The intake of food is not optional for people. Humans must eat to survive. It is easy to use food to demonstrate the helplessness of a character. Moreover, food tastes are biochemically tied to the physiology of the individual.

While adults have taste buds only on the surface of their tongues, infants have taste buds on the inside surfaces of their cheeks as well. Food is perceived differently at different ages because of the different amounts of enzymes present on the perceptual surfaces at different ages. Children are more fond of sweets than the average forty year old person because the relative presence of sensing enzymes for sugars is much higher in children. On the other hand, the enzyme that detects saltiness begins peaking during the teen years causing a fondness for potato chips and salty snacks.

For this reason, the attraction of children to the milk sugar, lactose (which is many times sweeter than dextrose, i.e., table sugar) is far more pronounced in a child than in an adult. This is a biologically driven taste which makes an infant desire milk over other foods in the interest of their survival. Regressed characters will show a taste shift almost immediately, even if they don't understand the biochemical mechanism.

Foods that a regressed character formally enjoyed, such as breaded, cheese-stuffed jalapeños will instantly become abhorrent to them. The immature mucus membranes of the mouth and nose will become extremely irritated if hot peppers are ingested. Note that the burning sensation will be felt as the peppers move through the gut and are painfully excreted into the diaper. The pepper-laden baby poop will be irritating and will quickly cause a rash.

Cigars will taste bitter and nasty. Cigarette, Pipe and Cigar smoke will irritate the delicate linings of the baby's mucus membranes and may cause him to choke or sneeze. Strong Porters and Stouts will become unacceptable drink. If the character hated sweet wines such as Mogen David, Madera, or Japanese Plum wine, he will develop a strong liking for them after the regression. The taste of chocolate will seem heavenly to the regressed taste sensorium, but since most baby books advise against giving chocolate to babies, there will be little opportunity for the protagonist to indulge himself.

Important Note: This may be used as a plot device to show how the protagonist's tastes have changed and demonstrate the loss of control of his life when his "mother" takes the candy away from him and slaps his hand for being naughty as she remonstrates him for stealing chocolates. If you elect to have a scene like this, make sure that his mouth, lips and hands are described as being covered with a coating of melted chocolate.

[Sidebar note: Almost all milk chocolate formulations melt at a temperature of 98.6 degrees Fahrenheitè the same temperature as the human core temperature. It will melt easily in the hand of an adult and even easier in the hand of a small child. Children have higher core temperatures and the capillaries in their skin tend to be more dilated than an adult's body in moderate or warm weather. The reason for this involves the relationship between the surface area and the volume enclosed by the same surface. Whereas the surface area is a function of the square of the radius of a curve, the volume is a function of the cube of the same curve. Thus, infants and children have a smaller ratio of volume to surface area than does an adult allowing thermal energy to transport itself more quickly to and from the center of the body than in an adult.

This is the rationale behind the practice of bundling up babies in cold weather and stripping them down to a simple diaper in warmer weather. Note that although an infant's thermal management system operates imperfectly, it does make an attempt to flush excess heat through capillary dilation beneath the surface of the skin in warm weather. There are a large number of capillaries in the epithelial tissues of the scrotum, the lips, head and hands of every individual whether the individual is an adult or infant. For this reason, a child's hand or face is usually several degrees hotter than the melting temperature of milk chocolate. Most mothers discover that her child has become a nearly instant sticky mess if her child is given a bar of milk chocolate to hold or eat.

This phenomena is also a contributing cause of diaper rash in babies who are changed regularly when they have wet or soiled their diapers but do not otherwise have their diapers changed in warm weather. Many individuals, including infants, are allergic to their own perspiration if their skin is remains in constant contact with a fabric or cellulose product that has become sodden with their sweat. Since most infants wear either plastic pants over cloth diapers or are ensconced in plastic-covered disposables, their perspiration becomes trapped in the fibers and cannot evaporate. Although it is rarely mentioned in baby care books, sweat retention by diapers are almost as much a causative agent of a mild diaper rash as is the ammonia from sour diapers. In recalcitrant cases of diaper rash, baby care books recommend removing the plastic pants, or letting the baby go naked until his rash has cleared up. True diaper rash is characterized by small papules or pustules that form in the affected area. The papules are usually caused by an allergic reaction to either the ammonia or the baby's sweat. Pustules are invariably indicators of a localized skin infection caused by either bacteria or yeast due to the overly moist environment of a damp diaper.]

Mother's milk is extremely high in lactose and can be expected to surprise and delight the revivified taste buds of the appetite of a the most jaded rejuvenated character. Breast feeding a formerly adult male reduces him to the simplest level of nutrition and makes him absolutely dependent on the mother figure for substance itself. It is helplessness and dependency personified.

Note that lactose is commonly prescribed by physicians to adults for its laxative effect and may give the baby runny stools. While some characters may be immune to the laxative effect, others may experience serious diarrhea. Others with a known lactose intolerance may experience severe allergic responses to mother's milk that include gastrointestinal disturbances, rashes and after repeated exposure, anaphylactic shock.

Most men have an attraction to the female breast which is rooted in the dimmest and most primitive memories of pleasure of their subconscious. Breast feeding a regressed person is a direct call to their earliest memories. The effect on the reader is tremendous, it is a direct hit below the belt.

As a side note, the phrase "hitting below the belt' does not just apply to boxing. Most people subconsciously "exist" in their lower abdominal area. This is because humans are genetically programmed to feel pleasure in the abdominal region immediately following the nursing period of infancy. In early infancy, the greatest region of pleasure is the mouth (an oral orientation of the personality), as the baby grows older the focus of pleasure centers on the act of peeing and pooping (an anal orientation of the personality) which at puberty becomes refocused on their genital areas. Humans as a rule have elements of all three orientations locked into their personalities which can be released under the proper conditions. Normal fear makes people feel as if "the bottom dropped out of their stomachs and their innards turn to water". Extreme revulsion makes people "sick to their stomach". Extreme terror makes people wet and soil their underwear. Extreme arousal in a man may cause him to ejaculate in his pants and a woman's vagina to exude lubricating liquids in genetically programmed anticipation of coition. Personality orientation may come into play and affect an individual's response to a particular situation. An oral personality may vomit at moments of high stress. An anal personality may become constipated while a genitally oriented person may feel an intense need to masturbate.

It is interesting to note that some people tend to telegraph their inward orientations in their speech. This phenomena can be useful to a writer in dialog creation.

Examples of an oral orientation; "This leaves a bad taste in my mouth." or "This idea doesn't smell right to me."

Examples of an anal orientation; "That's a real pisser!" or "I almost shat in my pants when I saw that!"

Examples of an genital orientation; "It looks to me like we're fucked!" or "We've been dicked over."

The object of the writer is to hit your reader below the belt repeatedly until the emotions you've invoked have made him as helpless as the protagonist. Make the reader suffer through the agonies that the protagonist must endure.

    1. Formula: Whether a baby is breast fed or given prepared formula, the baby will wake up with a mouth that tastes of sour milk if he is fed just before bedtime. This can be extremely disconcerting for a newly regressed character. The bacteria in the mouth will break down the milk quickly while the child sleeps and he will awake with bad "baby" breath that is so powerful that he himself will be able to smell it. (Side note: Nursing mothers can smell it too, but they are mothers and are forgiving creatures.)
      1. Powered formula: The powdering technique gives them a strong soy taste and should be used to "punish" a character.
      2. Prepared Formula: Prepared soy formulas have improved in taste in the past few years. Although they are no substitute for mother's milk, they've become close in taste and nutrition. Cheaper prepared formulas have a pronounced soy taste which makes them objectionable to the adult mind. Infantilized taste buds will only intensify the protagonist's ability to perceive the soy taste and make the experience that much worse.
      3. Canned Goat's milk: Similar in nutritional value to mother's milk, but with a canned off-taste that clearly differentiates it from fresh mother's milk. Use when breast feeding is impossible in the storyline but describe it to have the same taste as mother's milk. Serve warm (body temperature) in a baby bottle for greatest effect.
      4. Fresh (Pasteurized) Goat's milk: Very similar in taste and nutritional value to mother's milk, use when breast feeding is impossible in the storyline but describe it to have the same taste as mother's milk. Serve warm (body temperature) in a baby bottle for greatest effect.
      5. Breast (human) milk: This is the best that an Infantilist-AR writer can offer his character/reader. Part of the enjoyment of the reader is seeing how the author manages the kneading movements of the baby's hands on his mothers teat and how the nipple "grows" in the infant's mouth as he suckles. Many readers have fantasies about being breast fed and the inclusion of breast feeding at the end of the story gives them an intense emotional high that will be remembered long after they have forgotten the plot of the story.
    1. Baby Food
      1. Puréed infant food: AR devotees who like the infantilist genre can be hit hard with food of this sort. The problem is to find a food that everyone likes. Gerber Hawaiian Delight is good, as is the old standby, Oatmeal with Applesauce. Most people could eat any of the cereal or fruit purées without objection. The deserts, such as puddings, tapiocas, cobblers are more than acceptable. The new jarred "pie" flavors also have a very good flavor.
      2. Foods of the puréed type can also be used to "punish" a character. Strained peas, carrots, and broccoli are most people's immediate response to baby foods they'd hate to eat and squash and potatoes run a close second in a survey of ill-favored foods. Although most readers never think of it, puréed vegetable, mixed vegetable and turkey, and mixed vegetable and pork,, mixed vegetable and beef, or mixed vegetable and bacon dinners taste far worse by comparison. The granular texture of such dinners is abhorrent to the adult palate and having regressed taste buds won't make this type of food any more palatable. The taste of these dinners is so difficult to describe that the author is invited to buy a bottle of each of the mixed dinners and try them for himself. The bright flavor of a particular vegetable becomes "lost" in the melange of the purée. The heightened taste perception of a baby won't be of any help to the protagonist here. (See Appendix B - An Adult Gourmet's Evaluation of Baby Food)

        As a service to those authors who do not wish to carry out their own investigations of the taste of prepared baby foods, I induced a gourmet friend who has written cooking columns and has been a professional restaurant critic to taste-test some of the Gerber Mixed Meals. He has some renown at being able to replicate almost any recipe by mere taste alone. As a critic, he can identify and tell a chef which ingredient was too prominent in the recipe for perfect balance. He has reported back the following:

        Vegetables and Veal: The dinner had a strong aroma of vegetable beef soup when first opened. The veal had the low flavor of canned commercial (grade 3) beef which lent nothing to the overall quality. The concoction had a high percentage of potatoes which was discernable by taste and texture alone. There was a hint of powdered dried onion in the mixture. The meal had a "mealy" texture that was caused by both the potatoes and finely ground particles of beef. The complete absence of salt in this dinner made it totally unpalatable. While I could see a baby eating this, I would not willingly eat this particular concoction again.

        Vegetables and Turkey: The dinner had a strong aroma of vegetable soup with a slight hint of Turkey when first opened. The concoction had a high percentage of potatoes and peas which was discernable by taste alone. The "mealy" texture of the potatoes and finely ground particles of turkey was accentuated by the peas in the mixture. I found that the texture was particularly disagreeable in this dinner. As in the first dinner, the absolute absence of salt made the taste/texture combination abhorrent. As before, I can see this as a reasonable dish for an infant, but I would not willingly partake of this meal again.

        Mixed Vegetables Dinner: The dinner had a strong aroma of vegetable soup when first opened. Like the Vegetable and Turkey dinner, the concoction had a high percentage of potatoes and peas which was discernable by taste alone. There was an objectionable "mealy" texture of the potatoes and peas in the mixture. I found that the texture was particularly disagreeable in this dinner. As in the other dinners I sampled, the absolute absence of salt made the taste/texture combination abhorrent.

        Vegetables and Ham: The dinner had a strong aroma of vegetable soup when first opened. When I placed the first spoonful of the mixture in my mouth, I was assaulted by a slightly dead, rancid flavor of tainted pork. I refused to complete the test on this sample, believing it to be spoiled. I threw it out as inedible.

      3. Semi-solid older baby food: This is somewhat useful as a transitional food in stories while the protagonist continues to rejuvenate, but lacks emotional "punch" of puréed food.
      4. Toddler food: Least useful of all except as a vehicle for later transitions. Toddler food is too close to adult fare to make clear contrasts. Exception to the rule: While toddlers are often given animal crackers, it is considered unwise to give them salty snacks. An author may play on these differences. The character may ask for a pretzel or potato chip, only to be given an animal cracker.
    1. Baby Clothes:

Clothes that restrict a character's freedom of movement and make the character/reader helpless are useful. Examples; sleepers, sleeping gowns with the ends tied, infant sleeping "bags". Also consider clothes that require assistance to remove; overalls with the buttons that fasten the straps in the rear of the garment, baby doll dresses with the buttons in back, locking diaper pins, etc. Diaper pins may dig into the baby's side, but his weak fingers won't be able to unfasten them.

    1. Baby Furniture: Baby furniture is restrictive and imprisoning by it's very nature. Nowhere else is a human strapped into a seat to eat, bathe, ride in a car or be pushed around in a stroller. Felons are temporarily handcuffed and leg-shackled for movement between prison facilities and courtrooms, but only babies are strapped into strollers, bath and auto seats as well as high chairs on a daily basis. If the mother-figure leaves the baby for a moment during a diaper change, he's strapped to the changing station as well. If the baby tends to undress himself, pull on his hair in boredom or endanger himself with his hands, they are lovingly secured in cotton mittens to further reduce his physical ability to affect his environment.

3. Fantasy Identification: Usually revolves around the power/powerless dichotomy. Humiliation is by far the most common theme.

    1. Spankings: Spanking demonstrates to the reader how powerless the protagonist has become. Also, many readers have fantasies about being spanked. Spanking stimulates the tissues of the bottom and may lead to sexual arousal. Note that infants can have miniscule erections and do experience diffuse sexual feelings. If the baby has an adult mind, his reaction will be more intense and sexualized.
    1. Hand slappings: Quick, humiliating punishment to keep the baby from touching things that he shouldn't.
    2. Quick paddling of the diapered bottom while the baby stands: Useful in outings where a full fledged spanking isn't possible. Not very painful, but the embarrassment caused by the attention given his diapered bottom makes this extremely humiliating to the adult mind trapped in an infant's body.
    3. Full bare-bottomed spankings across the "mother's" knees: The last word in powerlessness. Humiliation stems from being naked on a fully dressed woman's lap as well as being effortlessly held down as his bottom is paddled with the flat of his "mother's" hand. A hair brush may be used, but this is seen as child abuse in children under the age of three. If the child panics, his bladder may release and he may wet his "mother's" lap causing even more humiliation. If the baby is a toddler in training pants, the next scene may be a forced diapering.
    1. Forced Feedings: Like spankings, forced feeding demonstrates the protagonist's loss of power
    1. Solid Food: Forced feedings of baby food in a high chair makes a particularly effective scene. If the baby resists, his hands may be slapped. (Don't slap a child's face under the age of five; it's perceived as child abuse.) The baby's face, chest and possibly hands will end up covered with baby food.
    2. Bottle feedings: The only real way a character can be force fed with a bottle is too have the character be held in the "mother's" arms so that she can effectively push the nipple against the baby's lips and force it into his mouth. Cheap unlined plastic baby bottles should be used for this rather than glass bottles. If the baby refuses to suckle, then the mother can squeeze the flexible sides of the bottle and squirt the formula into his mouth. Since his mouth is filled with the nipple, the character will have no choice but to swallow the liquid.
    3. Breast feedings: It is extremely difficult to force breast feed a baby. The baby's head may be forcibly turned and held in place against the erect nipple, but it is almost impossible to force the nipple into the baby's mouth. If there are two antagonists, then the baby's nose may be held shut by the helper to force the baby to open his mouth to breathe. The helper can hold his head in place while the "mother" uses her free hand to push down at the distal end of the teat to express her milk into the baby's open mouth. In general, the author should rely on either the adult's sexual desire for the woman's breast or on a baby's instinctive need to root and suckle. Starvation or thirst may be used to make an adult mind accede to breast feeding for survival. Once the baby begins to kneed the "mother's" breast, the element of force is gone. The protagonist has become an active participant in his own demoralization and mental regression. Feelings of guilt, abhorrence, mortification both during and after the feeding are common.
    1. Forced Diaperings: Forced diaperings are extremely effective scenes. If the tot was previously wearing training pants, his cries of objection to entering the final stages of his infantilization are very arousing to most male readers. In any event, the diapering shows that the protagonist is powerless against the antagonist's wishes.
    2. Forced Elimination of Body Wastes: Making the protagonist pee and poop himself against his will is a powerful image. Diuretics and laxatives can be employed or the protagonist can merely be denied the use of a toilet until the weak sphincters of his bladder and bowels give way to the inevitable. If the child is strong enough to remove his diaper on his own and runs away in a public place like a park or beach, you may easily have him micturate helplessly in front of crowds of strangers.
    3. Public Elimination of Body Wastes: Making the protagonist pee and poop in a toddler's potty chair is effective and doubly so if it is done in front of a group of adults (usually women). For maximum effectiveness, the child should either be completely naked or naked from the waist down. The scene may be further enhanced by having the protagonist "do it" in an unlikely place such as a living room rather than a bathroom.
    4. Forced Bathing: The regressed protagonist is made to sit still while his "mother" scrubs his entire body without letting him assist. The scene may be enhanced by having the "mother" talk babytalk to him while she washes him. An alternate version of this is to have the mother strip and shower with the naked baby in her arms; this is somewhat erotic and plays with the protagonist's (and reader's) frustration of the protagonist's loss of sexual prowess. Another version of this scene is to have the baby be so young as to be bathed in the kitchen sink. Then the presence of a woman friend who happens to be over for coffee and talk is natural.
    5. Forced Dressing: Forced dressing is akin to forced diapering. In order to make the scene effective, the clothes must be humiliating in some way, i.e., the baby boy can have his diaper covered with frilly rumba pants, be dressed in a baby doll dress, be dressed in a onsie or T-shirt that has some humorous and demeaning applique or slogan on the front, etc.

    7. Forced Entry of "Private" Areas of the Body: One of the reasons that the public is so afraid of pedophiles is because of their own "necessary" violations of an infant's personal privacy. Although no one doubts that a mother must clean her baby's dirty bottom or wipe the pee from her toddler's wee-wee, there is an undercurrent of societal guilt that these things must be done. Laxative suppositories must be shoved into the anus of a constipated screaming infant, the nipples of medication pacifiers must be forced into an unwilling baby's mouth to dose it with drugs, ear drops must be administered to an infant with an ear infection as must eye drops and nose drops, stopped up nasal passages must be evacuated with a nasal syringe, and most embarrassing of all, rectal thermometers are used to obtain an accurate core temperature of the baby. Any or all of these constitute at the very least assault and battery if performed on an unwilling adult and may constitute sexual assault depending on the point of entry. In the case of a baby, informed consent is impossible, so the procedures are performed without the acquiescence of the baby. In the case of an infant with an adult mind, these violations are taken as if they were personal assaults and are extremely humiliating.

    9. Major Violations of Personal Privacy: The wife/mother of the protagonist might fondle him in a sexual manner to stimulate and humiliate him. If the baby is in the care of a Jewish or Israeli teenaged babysitter or his wife, she may perform fellatio to quiet him. (The cultural practice of fellatiating infants among some Jewish groups is well known among Cultural Anthropologists and is thoroughly documented. It should be noted that this technique is not a sexual practice as such, nor is it child abuse. Rather it is a one means that a particular culture has developed to pleasure and quiet fussy babies. Mention of this practice in this document should not be construed as a criticism nor as an avocation of this technique of baby care. Please note that unless carefully documented in the story, the authorities may misconstrue this practice as sexual abuse and make a summery determination of child pornography. It is perhaps best if the author avoided this plot device altogether because of the inherent legal dangers.)
    10. Important Note: Be very, very careful when describing acts that may be construed as sexual by the legal authorities. Although it is perfectly legal for a wife to perform fellatio on her husband in most states, some jurisdictions disallow any sexual contact between adults except for the missionary position. Some jurisdictions such as Massachusetts require that all sexual activity be performed under white linen sheets (?), with the curtains or blinds closed and with a spouse using the missionary position only with the husband on top. In addition, the issue of non-consent may make a description of sexual contact illegal under State statute. Although the authorities have turned a blind eye to the Internet previously, they may take action in the future. Reliance on the Constitutional restriction against ex post facto laws may prove ineffectual. The Supreme Court has ruled that the United States Government may change the laws and enact ex post facto laws to levy revenue. Although the right of the First Amendment to the Constitution has been jealously guarded by the Supreme Court in the past, it is unclear at this point whether they will continue to extend this right to the Internet. Whether the U.S., government can be made to see the idiocy of trying to enforce a single Christian moral standard on the entire world remains to be seen. Governments in general have an incredible tendency toward megalomania and self-delusion. Prepare for the worst and you won't be disappointed with infantile behavior on the part of the government. If you use the guidelines delineated in this document, you may be prosecuted under a State law, but the judgement should be overturned by the Federal Supreme Court. Unfortunately, by that time you'll probably be penniless and unemployable. Welcome to the current interpretation of the Right of Freedom of Speech and Equal Justice in the United States!

    11. Minor Violations of Personal Privacy: Mothers and babysitters commonly put three fingers down the front of a baby's diaper to check for wetness or cup the crotch of the diaper in their hand to weigh it to ascertain if the baby has peed in his diaper. The mother figure may pull the back of the character's diaper open and peek inside to look at the baby's bottom and see if the baby merely farted or had a bowel movement in his diaper. If other's are present, the caregiver may make comments about how messy his diaper is or how much he wets himself to the character's intense mortification. A pacifier or the nipple of a baby bottle may be laughingly forced into his mouth to silence his cries for help in a room full of people. He may be bathed and diapered against his will.
    12. Violations of Personal Dignity: A baby may be bounced on the knee playfully, or his "mother" may playfully put her lips against his tummy and blow to produce a loud fricative noise known as a "Bronx Cheer". He may be forced to dry suckle the teats of a friend of his "mother". He may be forced to wear Baby Doll dresses, and Baby bonnets. He may be forced to suck his "mother's" fingers. He may also be forced to run or crawl around the house stark naked in front of strangers.
    13. Public Display of the Baby: The baby may be placed in a playpen while the "mother's" friends sit down to drink coffee and make jokes about him or his appearance. Or the infant may be placed in a stroller or baby carriage and taken for a walk.
    14. Abandonment: The baby may be "abandoned" to the care of others for the day in a Daycare center. Other options are Daycare centers provided by employers, Sunday only Daycare centers that may be available during Sunday services at Churches. Daycare centers run by individuals are a possibility, but most States are moving to control them. The baby may also be given unto the care of a neighbor or friend temporarily while the "mother" goes grocery shopping. In general, unless the friend is a part of the plot to regress the protagonist, this is not a good idea. If the protagonist's mother-in-law knows about the regression, then she is an excellent candidate for a babysitter. The opportunities for such a subplot are nearly endless!
    15. Forced Behavior Beneath the Protagonist's Physical or Mental Abilities: The protagonist may be forced to crawl rather than walk, babble rather than talk, suck his thumb, toes or pacifier, play with baby toys, etc. To be really effective, he should be made to act in an infantile fashion in front of others.
    16. Being Remonstrated or Berated by the Antagonist: This is very effective if the protagonist was formerly in a position of power over the antagonist. Looking up at the mother figure who now towers over him with an angry expression on her face may lead to justifiable feelings of fear in the protagonist. If he is made to apologize or is further punished by spanking or other humiliating treatment, the scene becomes that much more powerful.
    17. Having the Protagonist Wakeup to Discover that He has Regressed during the Night: The element of surprise is what drives this scene. Suddenly the dresser is too tall to open the top drawers, the protagonist's clothes are too big to wear, he may fall from the bed as he attempts to get out of bed, the toilet may be too high for him to reach unassisted, etc. This is a commonly used devise where the protagonist has a well-developed and socially disapproved fatal flaw, i.e., drunkenness or drug use.
    18. A Husband Regresses Due to his Own Folly: Experiments, spells and wishes gone awry are central to this theme. It is essential that the wife who has become the unwilling mother of her husband, scold, berate and embarrass her husband for the foolish actions before she accepts motherhood and her husband as her infant son in order to obtain the full effect of the story. The husband or wife must be independently wealth for this storyline to work.
    19. Regressing a Man to an Infant the Sight of his Wife and Discovering it was all a Plot by his Mother to Recreate the Family of Her Youth: This plot is difficult and usually only really works if the wife is tired of her husband and wants to be released from the marriage. (The plot may be complicated by a mutual agreement between the wife and mother for the man to be regressed.) If the transformation is accidental, than the wife may accept her husband's regression with little rancor, especially if at least half the (wealthy) husband's estate goes to the wife. Nonetheless, the wife must scold and berate her husband if the transformation is not instantaneous and also have his mother act in the most patronizing fashion towards her son possible. Also, it is best to regress the mother as well. The author may create amusing scenes with his mother regressing to the same age as his wife and having his wife and mother become best friends.
    20. Regressing a Man to an Infant the Sight of his Mother and Discovering it was all a Plot by his Wife for her to be free of her husband: This storyline works only if husband or mother is rich or can support herself and the baby (after she too is rejuvenated). Because of the advanced age of the mother, there is an inherent need in the storyline to regress the mother to an acceptable age (early to mid twenties) where she can properly care for her baby son.
    21. Regressing a Man to an Infant the Sight of his Wife and Discovering it was all a Plot by his either his Wife or her Boyfriend (or a combination of the two) for her to be free of her Husband and Marry/Live with her Paramour: This storyline really pushes men's buttons. Regression, jealousy, infidelity and sometimes wifely revenge all play a part in this type of storyline. When the husband's wife strips down and makes love to her paramour in front of the regressed husband, his feelings of jealousy and loss are priceless! A time honored and definite winner!
    22. Regressing a Man to an Infant the Sight of his Mother-in-Law and Wife and Discovering it was all a Plot by his Mother-in-Law to make him Acceptable to the Family: This storyline works only if the family is very rich and the protagonist is lower class. If he doesn't like his Mother-in-Law, then there are a number of humiliating possibilities available to the author.
    23. Regressing a Man to an Infant the Sight of his Wife and Discovering it was all a Plot by his Wife for him to substitute for the baby he should have sired as a husband: This storyline works only if the husband or wife is rich (or she can easily support both of them) and she demands revenge. Usually, the husband is a woman chaser who has had a secret vasectomy to further his woman chasing and is incapable of having children.
    24. Regressing a Man to an Infant the Sight of his Mistress and Discovering it was all a Plot by his Wife for her to be free of her husband: This storyline works only if wife is rich or can support herself and she demands revenge for her husband's unfaithfulness. Also, there should be some creditable reason (such as a spell), where his mistress would accept and love him as his adopted mother.
    25. The Protagonist Seeing Other's Amusement with his Regressed Condition: The antagonist should at the very least, always be seen smiling or grinning at how the protagonist has changed. The antagonist should make jokes and tease him constantly to remind him of what he has lost. Being laughed at or patronized by a woman is a very powerful image. Groups of women laughing at his predicament is also useful.
    26. Surrender of One's Will: The utter and abject surrender of one's body and soul to one's enemy is very powerful. This is the culmination of an AR-Infantilist story. The protagonist realizes he has lost and is dependent on his enemy. She changes from the enemy to his protector. He discovers that he needs his adopted mommy emotionally as well as physically. He becomes attracted to her and becomes fearful of others. The protagonist falls in love with his former enemy and wants to be her baby. He regresses emotionally to match his body's state. His behaviors become infantile. He begins to enjoy being diapered, fed and bathed. He cannot be humiliated by his circumstances; he has adjusted to life as a baby. His mind may crumble and he may lose the ability to reason or understand adult speech. He is content with his lot.


How to Write Adult Dialog that Won't Bore the Reader

Writing dialog is an art form in and or itself. In most cases, the author will try t o mimic everyday speech and fall flat on his face. The reason for this that most human dialog is boring! Most people speak in single syllables or short words and rely on context, body language and facial expression to get their point across.

The trick to making interesting dialog is to make it either, a.) so erudite and poetic that the reader is entranced with the writer's style or b.) using misdirection using indirect speech.

Technique A.) The writer may use alliteration and careful synonym substitution along with speech rhythms of iambic pentameter. This is a poetic style and not to be lightheartedly disparaged. Like the King James Bible, the flowery speech as well as the sensation of internal rythming patterns resurrect dim memories of Mother Goose tales told by ones' mother in the melodious tones heard in early childhood. This technique is an indirect assault on the subconscious memories of reader.

Technique B.) Indirect speech is to beguile the reader as if the author's speaker was trying to speak in an off-handed fashion that contains hidden meanings. The average person's speech is dull and unenlightened. Literary speech is for all practical purposes, unknown to the public these days. People who ordinarily speak in a literary fashion often become ambassadors or statesmen. The public does still find literary speech entertaining however, which is why I'm writing this tutorial. Although many writers use this form of dialog exclusively, there is a hidden danger with its use; indirect dialog, by its very nature, is somewhat schizoid its construction. One character makes a statement, and then the other character may go off on a literary flight of fancy that has only tangential correspondences to the first speaker's. statement.

Solution: Make all of your characters clever in their speech. Each of them should say the best possible, the most intelligent response at all times. Make them interesting characters so that they will have interesting things to say about life and the situation they're in. Use dialect or flowered speech to give the reader a feeling of "being there".

Important Note about Dialectal Speech Considerations: Some phonetic spelling is fine as long as it is easily understood by the reader. Don't make your work an exercise like "Finnegan's Wake". A few well placed clues to the speech pattern of the speaker is generally enough. Deletions of consonants or phonemes can be shown with apostrophes.

For Example: "I looked down that empty barrel for that gold gewgaw that you said made Mary into a babe agin' Ma, I swears that when I looked down theres, didn' see nothin' but the flat wooden bottom of that barrel with nothin' a-tall in it! Sissy's always been sort of forgetful about wheres she puts things, if you know what I mean, Ma. Are you sure that she dropped in down the flour barrel? Maybe she dropped that necklace down the hole in the outhouse when she warn't paying attention! Lord knows we's searched the house from attic to root cellar without findin' a thing! 'Course it don't make no sense nohow to be digging in the muck of the outhouse from my way of thinkin'. Both you's and I saw it on her chest after she were agin' backwards like into a babe. Since then she's done all of her business in her diaper. Now we both knows, that a babe can't use the outhouse nohow! She can't even walk since she got changed'…somethin' or someone must have stole it!"

Character and Baby Names

Since characters must have names, it behooves the author to make use of the opportunity to use them to greatest effect. After the character is regressed, he is a new individual and a name change subconsciously attenuates the differences and may be mortifying to the character. In general, there are two ways names can be chosen; for their philological meaning or for the psychological effect when the name is babified.

For example: Consider the name, "Brian Brandon" is of Celtic origin and means "strong" plus "quick sword". [The hidden philological and psychological meaning of the name might be "a man with a large penis who ejaculates prematurely".] When the name is babified, it becomes simply, "Bri-Bri". (A particular favorite of mine.)

If possible in an AR-Infantilist story, the author should chose a name that will "infantilize" well. One or two syllable first names that are simplified into a doubled first syllable are perfect for this such as the name Joseph", which becomes Jo-Jo. (A woman's "Jo" in the late medieval and renaissance periods was her lover, so the endearment of Jo-Jo-Jo has particular effect on scholars.)

If the name cannot be effectively broken into a single doubled syllable, then it may be possible to feminize it with a diminutive phonetic ending such as "ie". First take the formal name and familiarize it into a more common name that a child might possess. For example; Franklin becomes Frank, James becomes Jim, Donald becomes Don and Thomas becomes Tom and then apply the diminutive phoneme to feminize the name. Thus Frank becomes Frankie, Jim becomes Jimmy, Don becomes Donny (or Doni for extreme feminization that is not quite a female spelling.) and Tom becomes Tommy.

Other diminutives are fomed differently because of the differences in the original tongue that created the name, David becomes Davila (Hebrew),

Some names, such as Robert, have vastly different, but commonly used diminutives like Bobby.

AR-AG writers can use either androgynous names like, Drew, Marian, Cory, Brook, Courtney, Casey, Devin, Jamie, Kerry, Leigh, Lee, Lane, Morgan, Rene, Rory, Robin, Shawn, Sandy, Sydney, Toby, Tracy, Whitney for a low contrast "slippage" of meaning or they can take a boy's name and completely feminize a name like John (or Jon) to transform into Joann, Joan, Jonette, Jonalee, Jonille. Martin can become Marian or Mary and Henry can become Henrietta.

Sometimes a mere spelling difference can change the sex of the name such as in "Sean" and "Shawn". The diminutive of Donald is Doni for a male but Donie for a female, Francis .

Anagrams may also be used for the formal name, but an appropriate baby name should be chosen for the ease of speech, its euphonious qualities and how devastating it is to the character frame of mind.

For non-regressed characters who are not WASP (white-Anglo-Saxon-Protestants) Ethic names are good Harriet, meaning "keeper of the house" is not a cognate, but similar in phonetic construction to a "harrigan"


Writing Resources; Dictionaries, Thesauri, Encyclopedias and Oddments



What's What: A Visual Glossary of Everyday Objects - from Paperclips to Passenger Ships, edited by Reginald Bragonier, Jr. and David Fisher: This book is a virtually indispensable helper for anyone trying to write descriptive prose.

Roget's International Thesaurus (Putnam): I bought this Thesaurus in High School and fell in love with it. Frankly, I couldn't write without it's presence nearby to assure me that I'll be able to find the word I want when I need it. It would be too frustrating to have a word on the tip of my tongue and not be able to find it. Invariably, I find the word in this Thesaurus. Highly Recommended.

The New Roget's Thesaurus in Dictionary Form (Putnam): I own it but don't like it. Others swear by it. I think it’s a matter of taste. I hate its organization.

Webster's Collegiate Thesaurus (Merriam): An excellent Thesaurus.

The St. Martin's Roget's Thesaurus: I've heard of this one from professional writers but have never been able to locate a copy. From what I've been told, this is the BEST Thesaurus on the market; bigger, better organized, and with more synonyms. <Sighhh> I'd love to have a copy.

The Synonym Finder by J. I. Rodale (Hardcover by Rodale Press and softcover by Warner Books): An invaluable reference with listings more complete than most Thesauri. Highly Recommended.

Dell Crossword Dictionary: Crossword dictionaries are "cheat sheets" for writers looking for nouns and adjectives. You'll find oddments in crossword dictionaries that you never thought of and they are very cheap in used bookstores. Highly Recommended.

The New York Times Crossword Dictionary: The "Queen" of crossword dictionaries! You'll never find a better one then this. It's very expensive new, so buy it used. Highly Recommended.


Oy! You should a better dictionary want? Perhaps it's out there, but these eyes haven't seen one. This book describes Yiddish dialog and that isn't enough for you? <Sighhh> On the other hand, maybe you're right. It's only Yiddish-English and not the other way. At least it's something! Nu, what do you want, strawberry jam on your bagel? Good Kosher cream cheese isn't enough for you?

It's fun to read and if you're just looking for help in spelling, it's very useful. The dialog examples are wonderful. Read the whole book and learn some Yiddish!


Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary: Buy it from a used bookstore. It's illustrations and clear definitions make it do double duty as an anatomy reference.


McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms: Large and expensive, it should be obtained from a used bookstore.

Foreign Language Dictionaries:

In general, you can't do much better than any of the dictionaries from Cassel's. I have Cassel's French, Spanish, and German dictionaries within easy reach. Otherwise, use the online resources on the Internet. Beware though, a dictionary term for a word in a foreign language should ALWAYS be retranslated into English before you use it. I've seen some of the most amazing one-way translations that the dictionary listed as a viable selection be retranslated back into an entirely different English word that had no association with the word that was originally translated! If you don't speak the language, be careful or get expert advice.

Architectural Construction & Building Terms:

Carpentry & Building Construction by John Feirer and Gilbert Hutchings 3rd Ed: An invaluable aid to describing buildings and their construction. My husband bought a copy through a book club and never used it. When I'm writing a story and require specific terms that describe architectural or building terms, it sits at my right hand for instant reference.

Magick and the Occult


The Encyclopedia Britannica: Buy an old, old set from a used book dealer. The 1910 edition (11th ed) is scientifically out-of-date but has a wealth of classical material that was left out of later editions to make room for more modern information. Highly Recommended.

The World Book Encyclopedia: Buy a used set which is not up to date, but whose price has fallen sharply. It's a very well written Encyclopedia and well worth the money, especially if it's used.

New Columbia Encyclopedia: An excellent single volume reference. Since many book clubs use it as a discounted "come-on" for first time customers, it can be found quite readily in used bookstores.

Descriptions of Contemporary Clothing Styles, Furniture and Furnishings:

Catalogs are your best bet for descriptions of contemporary wear. Adult men's, women's, children's and infant wear are described in detail. Likewise, tasteful pictures of bedroom and nursery suites are itemized and depicted. Catalogs are an invaluable resource for writers. They can be bought, but many are free. Ask your extended family or neighbors if they have an old catalog from Sears or Pennys that's cluttering up the house that they'd like to get rid of. Tell them you can't decide on a style for some new furniture that you're thinking of buying. You'll be inundated.

Descriptions of Historical Clothing Styles, Furniture and Furnishings:

Unless you're willing to spend a good deal of money, the Public Library is you're best bet on furniture and furnishings. To a large degree, the amount of available material depends on the period. The Society for Creative Anachronisms is a great source for information on Medieval food, furnishings and costume, but by and large, most members have only vague notions of Medieval furniture. They have a Web site and the AR writer Jennifer Loriane used to be a member and has an excellent collection of reference text dealing with the Medieval period. She also has a large library of costumes through the ages as well as reference material dealing with historical America and can be emailed using the address listed on various AR Web sites.

American Geography and Scenery:


Note that all American downtown districts look pretty much the same from ground level wherever you go. Likewise, skid rows don't change much either.

The Latino barrios of San Antonio or Los Angeles appear so similar as to be indistinguishable. New York's Latin quarter is similar (in terms of construction) to the other ethnic urban neighborhoods in New York except for the Spanish signs in the windows.

Chinatown, whether in New York or in San Francisco are very similar except for the extreme hilliness of San Francisco.

Suburbs can be typed by date of construction as easily as by region. Architects tend to build houses according to prevailing fashion rather than by region. Exception to the rule: Houses in the east and colder climes tend to have basements. Basemented houses tend to be multistoried. Houses in the warmer areas such as the West and Southwest tend to be slab constructed, single-storied, "ranch" style houses. Note that even if a house in the West or Southwest has multiple stories, it's unlikely to have a basement.

Coastal housing tends to be built with pier and beam construction. Exception to the rule: Hotels and Casinos in tourist areas are built with heavy ferroconcrete construction techniques.

Exceptions: Period housing of any region, Coastal housing of the New England States, Southern Antebellum mansions such as in New Orleans and Atlanta, Log cabin structures in heavily forested regions.

City Descriptions:

Best gotten from Internet sources. Most large cities advertise themselves extensively on the Internet with descriptions of shops, sites and pictures of the more attractive areas. These are a wonderful resource. Don't forget to check the weather patterns for the area on the Internet too. A rainy day can be used to create a mood, provide a reason for an auto accident, etc.

Important Note: A number of cities have spent public funds to give their skyline a "unique" look. Seattle has it's tower, St. Louis has it's arches, San Antonio has it's tower, Houston has the Astrodome, etc. New York and Washington D.C. have their own appearance, although New York city is probably the most widely recognized skyline in the world. If you need to describe a city, use the feature that the taxpayers paid for. The city fathers will be happy that you mentioned it and everyone will recognize the city immediately.

Rural Descriptions:

Again, the Internet is your best source. Not surprisingly, the Web sites devoted to areas surrounding National Parks have the best maps and pictures. Flora and fauna are also usually covered extensively.


Contrasting Genres: How to Structure Storylines in the Major Fiction Genres of Fantasy and Science Fiction



The Fantasy Genre

The fantasy story is a tricky form where writers often make the same predictable mistakes. Here are some of the more common errors:

Premise errors:

Common Error: The contrasting ideas of protagonist and fantasy world have no natural connection.

(Put another way, there is no particular reason for this unique character to go to that particular world. The fantasy world must be the testing ground for the protagonist, a place specifically designed to challenge his unique weaknesses.)


Context Errors:

Common Error: A fantastical world that has no one-to-one connection with this world and your theme.

(The fantasy world should be a mirror representation of the everyday world that is twisted in some way. The act of sending a character to the fantasy world is a way of teaching the protagonist, and the audience, about how to live better in the everyday. If the fantasy world is just a beautiful or hellish vision with no grounding in the everyday, the result for the audience is clinical fantasy, interesting but not moving.)

Common Error: A mythical or fantastical world that doesn't have a web of connections and doesn't stand for anything.

(The fantasy world must be detailed and must be precise in what it refers to. Example: In The Fisher King, there were too few Arthurian elements to connect with the original legend, thus producing a piece that had only slight reference to the real world. The movie was correctly panned by the critics as a result.)


Character Change

Common Error: The new fantasy world has no effect on the protagonist's opening weakness and the contrast leads to no change on the part of the protagonist or society.

(The fantasy world must have a powerful effect on the protagonist (and perhaps mundane society), or there is no point to the journey.

Common Error: The psychological and moral needs of the protagonist are too broad.

(The high contrast of protagonist to fantasy world often results in simplistic psychology when the writer tries to create a shortcut rationale for sending the protagonist on a fun journey. Fantasy should not be an excuse for a lack of depth or a dearth of detail describing the protagonist's weaknesses.)



Common Error: The story dies after the initial shock of jumping to the new world.

(The jump to the new world is almost always the most sensational story moment in a fantasy. But good fantasies have an "engine" that generates story even after this event; a good fantasy story is based on the protagonist's confrontations with one or more antagonists who challenge the protagonist's weaknesses. )

Fantasy, like all genres, has certain prescribed elements that inevitably cause the writer structural problems. Here are some problems that good writers must overcome to create a good fantasy:

Problem 1. Creating a protagonist whose weaknesses "require" him to go to a fantasy world

(Simply sending the protagonist to a fantasy world because it is fun is not sufficient. The trip to the fantasy world must be motivated by a weakness within the protagonist and going to the fantasy world should be the only way for the protagonist to overcome it.)

Problem 2. Creating a fantasy world that is connected to the protagonist but is in opposition to his basic nature.

(Many fantasy worlds have a superficially pleasing quality but are not intimately connected to character or theme. The fantasy world should seem to the audience especially suited for the protagonist. But it should also be the one place the protagonist would not want to go.)

Problem 3. Finding a unique way to get the protagonist to the fantasy world

(The essential point is not to get to the fantasy world immediately. A good writer will envelope the reader in a description of the surrounds and the protagonist's feelings before the change in setting. The passageway from the mundane world to the fantastical is one of the most important events in the story and should itself be surprising.

Problem 4. Determining a detailed set of rules and environments for the new world

(Writers of fantasy often feel it is enough to come up with a unique fantasy world. They forget that much of the pleasure and power of the fantasy comes from delineating the details and geography of the world that they've created.)

Problem 5. Maintaining an overriding antagonist throughout the fantasy world

(Because fantasies involve a journey, they usual show the protagonist meeting a succession of antagonists. This leads to an episodic story. Creating an ongoing antagonist is the best way to overcome an episodic and flat middle.)

Problem 6. Giving all symbolic elements in the fantasy world a reference in the everyday world

(Many fantasy writers forget that fantasy is supposed to be allegorical, i.e., they employ mundane symbols rather than symbols that are inherent to the fantasy world. Readers enjoy a fantasy far more if they can see how the symbolic elements are variations on the everyday and present the everyday in a different light.)

As the most conceptual of all story forms, fantasy can confuse the best writers. Here is a method of writing a fantasy that should help you produce your best work:

1. Set up the overall geometry of the journey so that the story develops as the reader gets deeper into the story.

Important Note: All fantasy is allegorical, which means that the fantastic stands for something else. Therefore, you must have two tracks in every story:

1. The fantasy track

2. The reality track it represents

AR Writers Note: Unless the character is "moved to another world", the author should only concern himself with the reality track unless you are developing the character in preparation for the return to the mundane world. If the regression is permanent, than double tracking is usually a waste of time. (Unless you are constructing a story with meanings on multiple levels.)

Technique question: How is this done?

Think of the overall story as a three-point geometry in a two dimensional Cartesian space:

Let A= the protagonist's weakness

and B= the fantastical world

and C= the protagonist changed


Having considered the protagonist and his ultimate fate (A & C) then create B: The story idea must center on a fantasy dream or nightmare world come true for the reader. Then let A drive the story to C. Employ B as a vehicle to transform your protagonist from his initial psychological state to the story's denouement.

4. Go through the fantasy checklist and make an enduring contrast between the character and the world.

For example, a boy adult in a toy company lasts as long as the protagonist continues to act and sound like a boy. Find the contrast or conflict within the fantasy world itself

If the fantasy world is positive:

There must also be a negative hiding in the world that will cause the protagonist to return to the real world and grow

Example, Alice is frustrated by the nonsense and the Queen. Mary Poppins is a strict disciplinarian who make the kids obey to have fun.

If the fantasy world is a nightmare:

There must be a positive imbedded in the world that gives the character an opportunity and allows him to break through the nightmare, return to the real world and grow.

For example; in "Honey, I Shrunk the Kids", the kids gain confidence and love while going through their difficult trek. In "It's A Wonderful Life", George sees the value of what he has done and wants to live. In "A Christmas Carol", Scrooge sees he can still save his life and help others.


5. Create the fantasy world by exploring different possibilities for ideal worlds.

Common Ideal Worlds:

A. The writer's sense of an ideal place to visit

(For example, 1890's America, a jungle lair, a toy company, a major league baseball diamond in your back yard, a Hollywood studio where cartoon characters are real, an underground world where animals talk and have tea parties.)

B. A child's idea of perfection

(Since fantasy is about becoming a child, the AR writer should try to recall their happiest childhood dreams or memories. Contrary-wise, the writer should remember the darker moments of his childhood to give contrast.


6. Decide whether the world to be created is one of freedom or slavery

A fantasy world, whether one of freedom or slavery, is comprised of

    1. land
    2. people
    3. technology

If the land, people, and technology are in balance, the world is one of community, individual growth, and freedom. In the extreme it is a Utopia, or Heaven on Earth.

If the land, people, and technology are out of balance, everyone is out for himself, and in the struggle everyone is reduced to an animal. This is a world of slavery, or in the extreme is a dystopia, or Hell on earth.


7. Connect the fantasy world to the protagonist

If it is a world of slavery: make the world an expression of the protagonist's greatest weakness

If it is a world of freedom: create a world that contrasts the protagonist's greatest weakness


8. Define the culture of the fantasy world

Compare the unique value system of the new fantasy world to the value system of the first, or everyday world


9. Find the fundamental metaphor for the world

(A single metaphor provides the cement that makes the world whole and unique and expresses the allegorical meaning of the story.)



The underworld and the mirror image metaphor: All things are opposite of what they were


The jungle metaphor: Man is a beast below the civilized veneer of English culture

Honey I Shrunk the Kids:

The jungle metaphor: Beneath the surface of suburbia lies an active state of war

Mary Poppins:

The ocean metaphor: The modern city is a three-dimensional playground of possibilities

Field of Dreams:

The baseball diamond metaphor: Life is a game where you must play your best to win


The jungle and the underworld metaphor: the modern city is a cruel state of nature and even the protagonist is an animal


10. Fill the fantasy world with characters having unique talents

(The minor characters make or break the fantasy. They provide the wonderment and the terror during the journey.)


Alice in Wonderland: 1.) the Mad Hatter, the March Hare, the Queen, the Cheshire Cat, the caterpillar, the White Rabbit, 2.) The Wizard of Oz: Scarecrow, Tin Woodsman, Cowardly Lion, the Munchkins, 3.) Tarzan: apes, lion, jaguar, 4.) Mary Poppins: Burt, the Admiral, Uncle Albert, the chimney sweeps, the cartoon characters, 5.) Roger Rabbit: the cartoon characters

11. Fill the fantasy world with special arenas

(Define the smaller world [arena] in detail within the larger literary space to give your protagonist a rich landscape to explore.)


12. Consider providing a map. If that's not feasible within the story, the author should make a map for himself so he won't get lost in his creation.

(The more detailed the world's description, the more a reader can "slip into" and "see" the world that the author has created.)

13. Animate animals and objects

(The technique of animating the various objects and creatures of the world increases the sense that the world is alive with spirit. Note: this is an optional technique and should not be overused.)

14. Create a unique system of rules for the fantasy world.

(One of the most important features of any fantasy is a set of rules that are radically different than the rules of everyday life. Readers enjoy the experience of reading hearing that allow behavior that is either improbably or impossible in the mundane world. The addition of self-consistent rules also give texture and believability to a fantastical world.)

Example: Any of the SRU stories. The idea of the existence of a magician who gives away spells on the basis of suitability, no matter what the petitioner wants, lends an air of suspense to an otherwise hackneyed storyline.

15. Juxtapose people and objects together in an illogical fashion.

(Surreal juxtaposition of incompatible objects/entities is a way of expressing the central idea of fantasy that all things are possible.)


Roger Rabbit: Combination of real actors and cartoons

Fisher King: The bum as a knightly figure.

The Bargain: The housewife and the touchy Genie


16. Creating the story

If the fantasy world is positive:

  1. Create an environment where there is a plethora of potential good events and have the protagonist experience them in a logical progression of events
  2. Create the negative trigger:

Introduce a believable triggering event near the end of the story that will brings the protagonist to the realization that in spite of how great his Utopian environment makes him feel, that he'd be better off returning to his mundane existence (albeit with a different perspective on life). Ultimately, the audience must perceive that it is more valuable for the protagonist to come back than to stay in his apparent Utopia.

Important Note: the trigger should not be an external element driving the protagonist back, but rather something internal, something personal in the protagonist that makes him want or need to go back.

If the fantasy world is negative:

  1. The protagonist is conveyed to a dark world
  2. The protagonist fights his antagonists with psychological tools from the mundane world
  3. There should be sequence of attacks on the protagonist by his antagonists
  4. The protagonist should become spiritually toughened while gaining personal enlightenment from the experience

Examples: Gulliver's Travels, A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, Honey, I Shrunk the Kids, Tarzan, It's A Wonderful Life, A Christmas Carol

Use the following checklist to make sure that your fantasy idea will develop beyond a single cute scene:

1. Make an enduring contrast between the character and the fantasy world

For example, a boy adult in a toy company lasts as long as the protagonist continues to act and sound like a boy.

2. Find the contrast or conflict within the fantasy itself

If the fantasy is positive:

There must also be a negative hiding in the world that will cause the protagonist to return to the real world and grow

Example: Alice is frustrated by the nonsense and the Queen. Mary Poppins is a strict disciplinarian who make the kids obey to have fun.

If the fantasy is a nightmare:

There must be a positive imbedded in the world that gives the character an opportunity and allows him to break through the nightmare, return to the real world and grow.

For example, in Honey, I Shrunk the Kids, the kids gain confidence and love by their difficult trek. In It's A Wonderful Life, George sees the value of what he has done and wants to live. In A Christmas Carol, Scrooge sees he can save his life by helping others.

Remember that: A Fantasy story takes place in the double arena of two worlds: the mundane and the fantastical. Along with science fiction, fantasy places more emphasis on the context than any other form.


The Social Meaning of Fantasy Worlds

Unlike other genres where the world of the story shows the audience a view of the individual's relation to the group, the fantasy world shows the audience the individual's relation to his psyche.

Fantasy creates a mirror image of the everyday world and shows the individual the possibilities in his psyche that he has yet to explore.

Fantasy also shows the protagonist how to turn the boring mundane world into a playground, to learn to enjoy life, regardless of which world the protagonist exists in.

Advanced fantasy shows the audience the unexplored possibilities in society at large and how people can live better lives.


Two Kinds of Worlds

1. Spatially Contrasting Worlds

The protagonist goes to a radically different place which then allows him to see his own world differently.

Examples: Tarzan, Big, Gulliver's Travels, Alice in Wonderland, Honey, I Shrunk the Kids, The Wizard of Oz

A. Growing big or diminishing in size

This is a fundamental fantasy technique, the character changes size relative to the world and thereby changes the entire nature of his world. This can easily be applied to AB stories.

In this fundamental fantasy technique, the character changes size relative to the fantasy (or "real") world and thereby changes the entire nature of that world.

This technique turns the protagonist into a type of "alien" who can see the potential of the real world in a much different light.

Important Note: Reduction in size is always a better fantasy than growing large.

When a character gets small, he enters a number of environments that are both complex and dangerous. Everyday objects become insurmountable obstacles. The protagonist's physical limitations prevent him from escaping or taking charge of the situation. The protagonist becomes helpless in a world that no longer fits him. Wives and girlfriends become condescending and begin to rule the protagonist's world.

If a character regresses rather than merely diminishes in size, then he becomes subject to increasingly embarrassing events; his diaper must be changed and he must be fed and bathed daily.

On the other hand, when a character gets huge, he dominates all environments and the plot virtually stops.

Exception to the rule: King Kong: When the giant Kong comes to New York, he in effect becomes a miniature when scaled against the skyscrapers. The supporting characters become miniatures when contrasted with the giant apes enormity. The author of King Kong managed to create a scenario where both the protagonist and the supporting cast are reduced in size and thus saved the storyline from absolute ignonomy.


The Fantasy World as a Construct of Freedom or Slavery

The fantasy world, no matter what it represents, is fundamentally a world of freedom or slavery.

A fantasy world is comprised of:

  1. Land
  2. People
  3. Technology

If the land, people, and technology are in balance, the world is one of community, individual growth, and freedom. In the extreme it is a Utopia, or Heaven on Earth.

If the land, people, and technology are out of balance, everyone is trying to survive. Because of the struggle for survival, the characters lose their essential humanity as they claw for life like an animal. This is a world of slavery, or in the extreme is a dystopia, or Hell on earth.


Conflict Within the Fantasy World

All fantasy worlds, whether Utopian or dystopian, have internal conflicts.

Positive fantasy:

The context in positive fantasy appears to be simply a utopian life. In fact, it is utopian with a bad side.

Important Note: the fantasy has a duality; it is mostly positive but with a catch that makes the character want to go back to home and reality.


Big: A kid gets to be an adult in a toy company, but he misses growing up.

Alice in Wonderland: She visits this fascinating world that is more exciting than her boring life, but logic is turned on its head and the inhabitants can be very nasty.


Negative fantasy:

Though apparently hellish, the negative fantasy world has a positive imbedded in the world that gives the character an opportunity and allows him to break through the nightmare, return to the real world and grow.


Honey, I Shrunk the Kids: The kids gain confidence and love by their difficult trek.

It's A Wonderful Life: George sees the value of what he has done and wants to live.

A Christmas Carol: Scrooge sees he can still save his life and help others.

Fantasy is not just a world of fun journeys and logic-defying moments. Nor is it simply a matter of increasing mental possibilities for the protagonist.

Writing an advanced or transcendent fantasy involves increasing social possibilities. In this way a transcendent fantasy begins to resemble Science Fiction.

In great fantasies, the created world represents a social stage - wilderness, village, city, oppressive city - or a type of society - monarchy, democracy, tyranny, etc. The protagonist journeys through one or more of these worlds in order to contrast different ways of organizing people and living well.


Building the story

Because advanced fantasy compares systems, it, by necessity, uses a branching form to tell the story.

Each branch represents a complete society in detail, or a detailed stage of the same society.

Important Note: your successful story writing depends on how the writer connects and compares the branches in a line.


Gulliver's Travels simply puts four branches in succession.

Alice in Wonderland has Alice explore the roots - that is, an anti-world, a world and logic system opposite from her own society.

It's A Wonderful Life uses a set of storytellers and framing devices that let the protagonist travel through two different branching systems of the same town.


Important Note: If the story is being told in the first person, then use the storyteller to tie together the different branches

1. The storyteller himself must change because of the story

2. The storyteller must be wrong in at least one of the following: His original concept of what was happening, his ideals or his actions.


Science Fiction Genre

Science fiction is the most creative of all literary forms because the author must create an entire universe for the story.

The following techniques will help a budding writer create a great science fiction story.

Science fiction stories have the most diverse array of characters of any story form. As in any genre, the protagonist in science fiction drives the action. But because science fiction is also an expression of social philosophy, the minor characters become extremely important as "voices" speaking about their existence in the new world.

Main character:


There are infinite possibilities for the protagonist's problem/need in the story. But often the protagonist's need relates in some way to what it means to be human. For example, the protagonist is inhuman or animalistic or unevolved in some way.

Blade Runner - He is a ruthless androids killer

Star Wars - Luke Skywalker is an impulsive boy who must learn how to use the Force within him from a Jedi master

2001 - The protohuman apes are become killers, the humans want to kill HAL

Total Recall - Although he is a hit man for Cohagen, must become a rebel to save the people of Mars

Terminator: The protagonist needs to become a leader

Terminator 2: In order to learn not to kill, the protagonist must become a leader

Ideally, there should be a strong connection with the protagonist's lack of evolution and the planet's lack of evolution

Important Note: The story should be detailed at every level of the world: values, language, logic, etc.



The protagonist's unique desire depends on the story.

Negative Science Fiction desire line:

In most negative storylines the protagonist's object is to escape (Logan's Run, Clockwork Orange, Brazil); this is one reason these stories often fail commercially and with the readers. Running away is not perceived as an elegant conclusion.

Exception to the rule: Terminator; Because it is a dual genre story ( both Action and Science Fiction), it could use either denouement for a successful conclusion. The author choose both types of endings for the grand finale; While the antagonist attacks relentlessly, the protagonist kills the villain and survives as would be expected in an Action story. However, the denouement also encompasses a radical change in the Martian ecology, making it livable for the human community. Thus the Science Fiction thematic end was satisfied as well.


Positive Science Fiction desire line:

Usually the protagonist must explore, find something, win a war, or save a Planet (Star Wars, Star Trek, Dune, Total Recall)

Important point: Make the desire specific and intensely focused. The protagonist's personal needs must drive the story, and not be dominated by external factors.

Star Wars: Saving the Princess

The Stars My Destination: Revenge


The Antagonist

Make him the main representative of the negative system; this is true in positive and negative science fiction

The antagonist's goal: To gain or maintain control over the protagonist or the world

Important Note 1: Find a specific moment when control over the protagonist will shift to the antagonist; this gives focus to the story.

Examples: When the protagonist is regressed into infancy or when a planet is blown up

Important Note 2: Focus the attention of the story on the kind of world the antagonist is attempting to create rather than a simplistic description of abusive use of power over another.

Example of poorly written story with purposeless abusive power descriptions:

"Julie’s Fourteenth Birthday" by an unknown author (Story posted on the ASFD newsgroup)

Example of well written story with a well defined description of the antagonist's intent:

"Making the Grade" by Bob Stein

Remember: the story must be about evolution of the world

Important Note 3: Carefully detail the antagonist's vision. The lack of long range goals for the antagonist is a common and serious failing when writing Science Fiction


Star Wars: Darth Vader and the Emperor

Dune: The Baron and the Emperor

Terminator: Killing machines

Blade Runner: Killing machines

Star Trek: various - Klingons, Romulans, Vger machine, Khan


Plan the Story Carefully

Important Note: Concentrate on developing the story as a whole rather than describing a string of independent events or action scenes.

Allow the reader to "see" the falsehoods promulgated by both light and dark characters in the story. Both sides have their own agendas and present a false face to allow them to proceed to their personal goals.

      1. Deception by the protagonist

(Usually this is done for face-saving or for the greater good. If the protagonist is a scientist, he may try to hide a potentially dangerous discovery or invention. If the character is young, he may attempt to present himself as older. If he has a foible, he tries to hide it. If he's being pursued, he may use a disguise.)

2. Deception by the antagonist

(The antagonist is the enemy and must hide his ultimate plans from the protagonist until the protagonist is under his control. The ultimate disclosure of the antagonist's plan may constitute the denouement of a negative [nightmare] world story in which the protagonist has lost at the end of the story.)


Blocking the Action

Blocking is a theatrical term that denotes the movement of the actors on the stage. Within the context of story writing, it should be taken to mean the description of the character's movements within a scene. It is important to maintain the flow of the story by having smooth movement of characters from one part of the room to the other without "jumping" through the virtual space of the story. Let the rhythm of the story carry them smoothly to their next natural action. For example: Suppose a story had a scene in which a baby was being diapered but the storyline required the person who was diapering the baby to be on the opposite side of the room. Rather than have the person "appear" at the other side of the room instantaneously, invent a reason, such as a dropped pacifier which rolls underneath the dresser, which requires the person to walk over to the crib or nightstand to retrieve a spare "binkie".

Minor characters

Minor characters are crucial in the social philosophy of science fiction because they allow the writer to use the comparative method and express the theme.

There are three types/uses of minor characters:

1. Use minor characters to further demonstrate the protagonist's psychological qualities.

Important Note: Avoid simplistic character differences. Such as the contrast between the Star Trek characters Spock (logical) and Bones (emotional). Make your minor characters complex and rich in detail.

2. Employ different morphological/physiological structures among living beings to demonstrate the infinite possibilities of existence in the Universe.

Important Note: Non-human characters should not simply look weird to the average person, but have a different set of social rules based upon their structural morphology or culture. If possible within the restrictions of the storyline, give them powers that are an interesting variation or contradiction to the powers of human beings

3. Machine people, aka androids, robots or self-aware computers. They serve as a type of alien creature that demonstrates the flaws in human evolution; they question how human behavior works and they can appear more "human" than humans.

Important Note: Avoid unemotional, flat, simplistic dialog from aliens. Examples; "Why are your eyes wet?" or "What is laughter?" The important question that Science Fiction attempts to answer is what constitutes or delineates the quality of humanity. A good writer will explore the human experience in depth.

Much of the success of any science fiction story is the quality of the future world in which the story is set. These are all of the elements that should be present in the world of your story.

1. A Framework of Change

Before you detail the futuristic world of your story, you must create a framework of cultural and universal evolution. This framework should include:

      1. Odd or unusual combinations of land, people, technology
      2. New relationships of work and play
      3. A fresh view of the differences good and bad government
      4. A different set of values: what makes a good life

2. A Detailed Description of the Scientific Advances

Science and fiction represent two worlds of the 20th (and 21st ) century that are alien to one another. The object of the writer is to combine them into a synergistic whole that is more than the parts.

Important question: What is the next or best form the planet will take?

3. Uses of Technology

Man's culture is defined by his tools. Every science fiction world represents some advance in the use of tools to extend the man's power over his environment. Technology should be considered as an extension of man's reach rather than an alien entity.

Important question: What is your vision of the good life when the tools become so powerful and the reach of humanity becomes almost godlike?

Important question: To what end will the technology be employed?


1. Exploring the unknown: Life as process

2. Employing technology for material improvement

3. Employing technology to enhance the powers of imagination

4. Enhanced technological production

5. Enhanced family life; Telecommuting

6. The Utopian ideal: Life in a technological paradise:

Important note: Science Fiction answers this question from a planetary perspective rather than from a Universal perspective. (Planets must be considered as large tribes from a Universal perspective. No Universal method of living can be applicable to all beings.)

4. Sociology:

Science fiction is fictionalized social philosophy. In science fiction, the society is either

      1. The negative stage we will enter if we continue to make certain choices now.
      2. The positive stage we will enter if we continue to make certain choices now.

Science Fiction has two components in which the story will be written: time and space


A good writer doesn't just detail a particular year in the future, but also a social stage. This means showing the evolution that any society must pass through as it grows. The forces of change are the unique combination of land, people, technology.

There are four stages to societal development: wilderness, village, city, oppressive city

Science fiction can occur in any of these stages but even if you set your story in the wilderness, the technology should be very advanced, as in Road Warrior.

Important Note: Highlight the forces acting on the protagonist.


      1. Overpopulation
      2. Not enough water, air, oil, etc. for all the people on the planet
      3. A new government
      4. The obsolescence of a technology
      5. Too much power of the machinery
      6. War
      7. Impending natural disaster
      8. Revolution
      9. Pestilence
      10. Famine



In order to delineate a "space" in a work of Science Fiction, all of the following elements should be well defined:

      1. What is the arena
      2. What are the space-time rules
      3. Rules of motion
      4. Rules of communication
      5. Political system
      6. Nature of sex and reproduction
      7. Class differences: the signs of status and servitude
      8. Thought system
      9. Language

Important Note: The context of the story must have a purpose

The purpose of the story context will show; How our current world is moving toward disaster and/or what the new system is and how it is possible

The key insight of Science Fiction: The world is a holistic, synergistic entity that is more than the parts that compose it. The author must examine the complete system to see the source of any particular problem. To fix any single problem, the entire system must be changed.

For example: To solve a political problem look at language, sex , transportation, etc.

The problem of political stability was solved in Frank Herbert's "Dune" series by creating a new religion where the Emperor was a God-King with the power to see possible futures.

When creating these spatial elements:

5. Create the arena: look for the single arena which defines the basic problem even though vast space must be covered in the story

Begin the story on a note that's larger than life, i.e., in outer space.

Example: 2001 began with a clip of the Earth-Moon Space Station rotating against a starry field.

Describe in detail the differences between the mundane (known) universe and the fictional universe that is being created.

There are two kinds of arena(s):

1. Single tight arena: A single planet or location

Examples: Alien, Aliens, and Blade Runner

      1. Multiple arenas of many worlds in succession.

Examples: The Stars My Destination and Star Wars

6. Detail the Universe

Define the space-time rules:

For Example: Establish the possibilities of gravity control within the space-time continuum.

1. The normal continuum

2. How that continuum could be bent

3. Alternative worlds of different matter or anti-matter (The budding author would be well advised to stay far, far away from this one. The physics of matter are fairly well understood and stories based on this premise would create a flood of derisive remarks and untoward comments about the lack of the author's scientific knowledge.)

Define the rules of motion:

Explain the technology for counter gravity and covering interstellar distances.

Examples: Hyperspace and light speed in Star Wars and jaunting in The Stars My Destination.

Important Note: Show the personal/social/economic costs of the new rules.

For example, in The Stars My Destination, if someone jaunts without precise knowledge of location they can teleport themselves into the space occupied by a rock.

Define the rules of communication:

      1. Establish how communication is started and ended
      2. How status affects communication
      3. Connect the rules of communication to present technology

Define the political system: Go beyond the simplistic description of monarchy, tyranny, or democracy. Show how the flow of money affects future politics. Compare the future system to the present banking and monetary systems.

Delineate the future nature of sexual behavior and reproduction

      1. Create new reproductive behaviors for aliens.
      2. Describe the sexual politics of the future and compare the new politics with the politics of the present

Differentiate class differences: Define the signs of status and servitude

Explain the thought system: explain the future logical systems of thought. Compare it to the present system and show how the new system is an improvement of current logic

Create a new language: Make up slang, bend the present meanings of words, blend words, use jargon

Important Note: Esperanto is a superbly constructed artificial language that can be utilized for Science Fiction. Also, an author can use Grimm's Law to generate new pronunciations of old words. Computer jargon can be used and may undergo the same changes if they become "hearth and home" words.

(Grimm's Law of the philological change of consonants over time was discovered by one of the well known fable authors collectively known as the "Brother's Grimm". Grimm's Law demonstrated the hearth and home words of Proto-Indoeuropean underwent an orderly change in consonant structure over millennia. The same Law can be used in a Science Fiction setting to project the next consonant changes in English or European languages.)


Important Note: The Science Fiction world should have the ambiance of being lived-in and messy much as the mundane world is. When describing the future world, create a mixture of anachronistic objects or customs with futuristic technologies and social rules. Improvements and variants to old technologies are also useful and give the reader a sense of "security" that he understands the future world.

Example: In the movie "Alien", the ship is messy and the crew argues about pay


Potential Problem Areas:

Like any story form, science fiction has elements imbedded within it that can cause problems when writing a story.

Avoid the negative storyline premise unless the antagonist manages to create a new society by the end of the story. Even then, the author runs the risk of being harassed.

Setting a story in the forth social stage of the "The Oppressive City" as seen in the movies "Blade Runner" and "Brazil" is tempting because Science Fiction places so much emphasis on future worlds. Unfortunately, these stories are both the commercial kiss of death and generators of discouraging email.

(Because of the unmarketability of this class of story and dislike of many readers for this sort of fiction, the Science Fiction stories being created by professionals are much more likely to be positive in the future. Note that "Escape from New York", "Escape from L.A." and "The Postman" were panned by the critics while "Armageddon" and "Independence Day" received rave reviews.)

Avoid creating a world so strange that it has no one-to-one connection with the mundane world and story's theme

Many science fiction writers, knowing they have complete freedom to create whatever world they wish, create one that has no resemblance to the world that readers are familiar with. The result is reader alienation.

Science Fiction's Biggest Problem: Science fiction must not be overly clinical (or super-technical) or the author has failed in his basic purpose of making a social commentary on this world.

Important point: While technical details can destroy a story, they also form part of the texture. The author must strike a balance between too much and too little technical detail. For instance, in "The Angel of the Backward Look" the author used a physician's daily orders and report to describe much of what was happening in the story. The use of clinical detail gave the reader a feeling that they were reading an actual doctor's daily records and thus lent believability to the story.

Texture is everything in science fiction. Creating sufficient details about the politics, society, work, etc. of the future world is essential!

Potential Pitfall:

Because of the desire to get the story moving, many authors create their future world with a few broad brush strokes. Science Fiction without a detailed view of evolutionary culture is superficial at best. At worst, it's a boring hack. Describe, describe, describe! The good author will show every detail of his vision to the reader.

Technique Note: As in Fantasy stories, creating a strong central character is absolutely necessary to writing effective Science Fiction.

(Because of the importance of context in a Science Fiction story, the world or system often dominates the protagonist. If the protagonist is weak, than the resulting story will have a vast lacunae were the main character should have been.)

Give the protagonist a specific desire line

A story with a dominant future world often prevents the protagonist from coming up with a specific desire line. This makes the protagonist defensive and reactive and kills the story momentum.


Avoid one-dimensional alien characters

When creating an entire world, writers often try to save time by giving the minor characters literally one characteristic to define them. For example, the logical race, the warlike people, or the furry people.

(This makes your story seem thin and schematic, as well as psychologically simplistic.)


Tracking the Storyline

Horror tends to have too little story while science fiction tends to have too much. Because science fiction can cover wide expanses of space and time, the story jumps between scenes are too large (or unclear) for the reader to easily compass.


Avoid the simplistic Good versus Evil theme

Because of the large canvas, many writers shorthand the opposition by showing them as dark and evil. This results in an opposition that is simply inherently bad, without reason. Science fiction with no competing visions of the how the world should work represents the nadir of literary creation. The antagonist(s) must have a clearly defined purpose and vision of how they will change the world.


Avoid the fallacy of the future

Many writers get the urge to use science fiction as a forum to predict what the future will be like. In general, future predictions have very little interest for the reader other than as a clinical study in what if unless it is intimately connected with the storyline.

Use the future to abstract the present instead. It's more emotionally satisfying and therefore more powerful. When an author describes a possible future, the reader becomes more involved in the story as he sees the forces and choices we have today and the consequences that may result from choosing a particular path.


6. Crosscut characters and storylines to create a complex story interweave

7. Detail the smaller worlds

(Science-fiction stories, especially positive ones, move not just by plot but by worlds.)

Important Note: Use the geography and general morphology of the story setting to help define each sub-world

8. Outline the battle

(In space operas, this usually means a huge blitzkrieg which is over in minutes.)

9. Define the protagonist's self-revelation

The highest level of Science Fiction is to reveal to the reader how to create a new universal order.

Important Note: The protagonist's self-revelation must be completely detailed


Much of the success of a science fiction story involves playing with the physical laws (relationships) of/within the universe. These laws have been mapped over the last four hundred years by a number of physicists. They fall into four major categories:

Newtonian Physics:

    1. The Laws of the universe are fixed and immutable.
    2. The universe is made up of massed particles that move in predictable patterns
    3. The scientist is an observer whose continued observations and deductions make his approximations mirror absolute reality.
    4. The universe is completely knowable and predictable.

Einsteinian Physics:

    1. The speed of light is limited within the media within it travels. There is an upper limit on it's speed in free space.
    2. Force and matter are different manifestations of the same phenomena . The unproved Unified Field Theory, which Einstein was attempting to perfect at his death predicts that at the extremely high energy levels present at the time of the Big Bang, that there was a single unifying force. The electromagnetic, weak nuclear force, the strong nuclear force and gravitational force are all low energy manifestations of the unified force. Gravitation is seen as a localized distortion of space-time within the region of a massed object.
    3. The space-time continuum is curved into either a saddle-shaped Riemann manifold or a hyperspherical Einsteinian manifold.
    4. Gravity bends light because the perceived gravitational force is actually a distortion of the space-time continuum.
    5. Two observers moving at different velocities measuring the same event will have different measurements due to the relativistic consequences of their differing velocities. The come up with two different results that are proportional to the difference in their "lab-frames".
    6. The length of rods and time metric of clocks in one relativistic lab frame are different from the length of rods and time metric of clocks in another relativistic lab frame as viewed from a third relativistic lab frame.
    7. The objective universe is independent of the observer, but since the observer's reference frame affects the observation, no observation can be absolute.


Quantum mechanics:

    1. Nature is not continuous, but discontinuous - it moves in quantum jumps
    2. Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle: If a particle is measured, it is possible to know either it's energy exactly or it's position (or direction of travel) exactly, but perfect knowledge of one parameter denies the observer the second parameter absolutely. Thus all knowledge about subatomic particles is uncertain to some degree.
    3. The act of observing changes what is observed
    4. Perfect (absolute) knowledge of all forces and positions of all particles in a system is fundamentally impossible.
    5. The universe and the observer are part of the same continuum: The act of observation changes the system itself.
    6. The failure of the idea of natural, immutable Law. All objects have a relationship within the boundaries of their influence. Stochastic (statistical processes govern the universe rather than simplistic causal relationships.

Post-quantum Physics:

    1. There is no ultimate particle or force making up the universe: The universe has no separable parts, it is continuous whole.
    2. The cause of any one thing is everything else.
    3. What we see is not "out there" but a relationship between our map and an aspect of the universe.
    4. The observer does not accumulate knowledge but experiences insights, which are simply new angles of perception.
    5. What we perceive is the continuous process of structure in flow.
    6. The failure of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Order does not tend to disorder, rather extrinsic order becomes increasingly intrinsic over time. There is no such thing as disorder - only different levels of order

    7. The universe doesn't have three or four dimensions, but infinite numbers of dimensions.


To write a story that transcends typical science fiction, you can't simply write an adventure story on a grand scale. Rather, you have to create a new vision of how the world works and can grow. Three kinds of story forms work well for the new science fiction:

1. The Creation Myth Story

Creation stories have been taken over by science, especially physics. This considered by some critics to be a major thematic error; they insist that using science in a creation myth is a mistake and misses the point of the creation story. They believe that a creation myth is not an explanation of actual creation but rather the philosophical creation of the world.

Show the fundamental processes of evolution at work from both human and objective viewpoints:

Human Viewpoint; A story may have linguistic, cultural, and physiological evolution.

Objective Viewpoint; planetary (ecological, geological and meteorological) evolution and cosmological (Galactic, Stellar, Energy/Particle [Big Bang]) evolution.

Possible arenas: Outer Space, a new America

Detail the protagonist as an evolving being: the character development of the protagonist should parallel the cultural development of man.


Must be detailed

Emphasize the steps of personal growth beyond the ones we know about. For example, seeing how your attitude shapes your reality

Delineate specific steps of evolutionary growth

Track a single character in the story

To write this story as science fiction, you need to:

1. set the story in the future

2. place a heavy emphasis on technology


2. The Eco Myth

An Eco Myth is a representation of how the world would work if ecologically sound.

Story process: The old network of free-wheeling corporations changes into a new network of socially-conscious corporations

Underpaid laborers harvesting nature for bare survival changes to responsible workers working for their own fulfillment

Animals hunting is stopped and man sees himself as part of a web of species

Arena: the city in the landscape must show levels: from intense city to suburbs to countryside to wilderness

Types of protagonist: characters from different stages of civilization: the modern man - especially the artist/scientist - the villager, the nomad of the wilderness

Storyline: the protagonist will journey from city to nature and back to city, then unite them all together

Endpoint - harmony between the city and nature

Self-revelation: the protagonist learns how to live in the city by insights from nature and brings positive elements of city to nature

Unity between science and myth

Can be written as either drama or comedy

Key point: if you want a mythical element, you must make both city and nature fantastical; make the web palpable

Key mistakes:

1. Don't make a clear distinction between the city and the wilderness, since this allows the city audience to see the wilderness people as primitive.

2. Don't set it strictly in the wilderness

3. Don't make one side evil and the other side good

Again, set your science fiction story in the future and use technology.


3. World Rejuvenation Myth

Once the frontier closed, the world could not be created, it had to be recreated.

Negative science fiction is one response to the end of the frontier (A Clockwork Orange, Blade Runner) but it is narrow and rarely popular.

Key: break through the despair and the apparent all-powerful technology and write the rejuvenation myth.

Arena: the city

Type of protagonist: everyman - but must be capable of deep insight

Storyline: a protagonist struggles with an enslaved people to lead them into a new world of freedom and harmony. Simultaneously, the protagonist recognizes the causes of his own slavery and becomes a leader.

Key point: must include a sense of the positive future society

Need a Utopian vision that acts locally but thinks globally

Examples: Close Encounters of A Third Kind (uses the Moses myth), Road Warrior

Key mistake: don't set the story in a world that is totally unlike earth; it has no effect on the audience. A story set in an obviously plastic creation gives the audience no way to begin to rejuvenate themselves and where they live

Make the city a playground for all and show technology as a key to play


Key Point: Write The Creation Myth Story, the Eco Myth, and the World Rejuvenation Myth as adventure stories


A General Introduction to AR-Horror

AR writing is without a doubt, a form of Horror Fiction. It encompasses a loss of physical, emotional and mental abilities that every adult takes for granted. The difference between mainline Horror stories and AR stories that the horror of transition is internalized so that the protagonist becomes something that he is well aware of, rather than being transformed into some beast of the night. Additionally, mainline Horror stories contain an element that threatens the character that is more than human (Alien, Demon, Evil Spirit) while an AR story concentrates itself with the childishness within the character himself. In the usual Horror story, there is some Beast to be overcome, but in the AR story, the beast is a small helpless infant who is no danger to anyone. What makes it a Horror story then? The inescapable transformation into something that destroys the manhood and takes away his pride. The horror is to be made less than the character was, and who's adult privileges and powers the protagonist may never again regain.

The loss of the mundane abilities of turning a doorknob, dressing oneself or being able to use an ordinary toilet frightens most people. They know that like their parents or Grandparents before them, they will end up as diapered, bedridden, incoherent individuals. As people become older and realize that this is the path that they will go down whether they will it or no, the fear of the Demon of Age becomes a palpable terror that haunts their Golden years. The thought of dying alone and unloved in a nursing home makes people shudder in anticipatory fear of their last days.

In many ways, AR-Infantilist fiction has some of the same qualities as the well-founded fears of a Senior Citizen. But there is a difference. To be a child or an infant again carries with it the possibility, if not the promise, of the love and a caregiver. If rejuvenated characters must lose their ability to speak, to walk or to pee and poop on their own in a toilet, then they at least have the assurance that there will be someone who loves them who will change their dirty dydees, feed them and lovingly watch over them. The Horror in AR is in the losing of adult abilities, but there is the unspoken promise that they will be loved and cared for if not like adults, then as beloved infants. The protagonist may never recover his abilities, but someone will be there to take comfort and love him. AR stories are often stories without escape by the protagonist, but the hero can count on the best efforts of the mother-figure, the Mother-Goddess to take control of his life and see that he his loved. For this reason, many AR stories have quasi-romantic twists at the end, where the protagonist falls in (baby) love with his mother. These are not tragedies in the Classical sense, nor are they Classical Comedies. They are similar to tragic-romances where the hero loses some of his physical disabilities, but gains overall by winning the love of the woman he admires.

In the case where the protagonist loses and has no clear caretaker, I personally believe this is a fault of the author for not providing a proper denouement. A caretaker must be provided for the new infant, even if she wishes to make his life miserable to the end of his days, this may be a reasonable judgement for the character's sins and make a moral ending to the story.

The Main Theme: Constructing Stories in the Age Regression-Infantilist Sub-Genre



The Age Regression-Infantilist Sub-Genre

Age Regression is usually a type of Fantasy Horror with only occasional stories written as Science Fiction Horror. In either case, the focus of the story is on the transformation of the protagonist or the antagonist into youth or infancy and the changes the rejuvenation causes between the relationship the character has with the world and the people around him. The willingness of the character to be rejuvenated determines his reaction to the transformation. If the character is unwittingly changed into an infant, his reaction is generally one of horror as his social powers slip away and he becomes physically small and weak. If the character manages to return to an adult state, the story is an Adventure sub-genre. If the character remains in his regressed state and hates the outcome, the story is a pure horror story. If the character ends up in love with the woman who takes care of him and enjoys being her infant, then the story is part of the Romance subgenre.

Important Note: The image of a man being changed into a baby is more psychologically powerful than the rejuvenation of a woman into infancy because of the stark contrast between an infant's dependence and an adult's independence.

Because Western society is paternalistic, the transformation of a dominant man into helpless infancy is more dramatic than the rejuvenation of an ordinary housewife into infancy. For many readers, women are subconsciously seen as weak and dependent, so the contrast caused by a woman's transformation into babyhood isn't as striking as a man regressing into a toddler and losing his social status and power over the world around him.

Since babies require caregivers to change their diapers, bathe and feed them, etc., there are problems with story structure when a woman is regressed rather than a man. If there are two adults in the story, usually the conflicts center around the relationship between a man and woman. Since men in general are not perceived as good caregivers for babies, regressing the woman leaves her without an effective caregiver.

Important Note: A good AR-Infantilist story is dependant on both the means of transformation (rejuvenation) as well as the social relationships of the regressed person.


A Comprehensive List of Personal Relationships with Notes Delineating the Difficulties Employing them in a Storyline

The following relationships can easily be made to work;

Married Relationships


  1. Husband and wife; man regresses into infancy and wife becomes mother.
  2. Husband and wife; wife regresses into infancy and husband becomes caregiver. (Note: This plot is difficult to carry off for previously mentioned reasons.)


  4. Husband, wife and wife's boyfriend; man regresses into infancy, wife becomes mother and wife's boyfriend becomes husband
  5. Husband, wife and wife's boyfriend; wife's boyfriend regresses into infancy and wife becomes mother
  6. Husband, wife and mistress; man regresses into infancy and mistress becomes mother, wife leaves husband
  7. Husband, wife and mistress; wife regresses into infancy and mistress becomes mother
  8. Husband, wife and mistress; mistress regresses into infancy and wife becomes mother
  9. Kinky Married Relationships

  10. Husband, wife and wife's mother; wife regresses into infancy and wife's mother becomes wife to her daughter's husband and cares for her infantilized daughter
  11. Husband, wife and husband's mother; both man and wife are regressed into infancy and husband's mother cares for her infantilized son and daughter-in-law
  12. Husband, wife and husband's father; husband regresses into infancy and wife becomes husband's mother and father-in-law's wife
  13. Husband, wife and husband's boyfriend; both men are regressed into infancy and wife becomes mother
  14. Husband, wife and husband's boyfriend; husband is regressed into infancy and wife becomes mother, husband's boyfriend leaves
  15. Husband, wife and wife's girlfriend; wife's girlfriend regresses into infancy and wife becomes mother. (Note: This is a difficult plot to carry off because of the inherent tensions between husband and baby and the wife's sexual feelings toward her former girlfriend.)
  16. Husband, wife and wife's girlfriend; man regresses into infancy and both women become mothers to husband

Non-Kinky Married Relationship with Extended Family Regression

  1. Husband, wife and husband's father; father-in-law regresses into infancy and wife becomes father-in-law's mother
  2. Husband, wife and husband's mother; mother-in-law regresses into infancy and wife becomes mother-in-law's mother
  3. Husband, wife and wife's mother; mother regresses into infancy and wife becomes mother to own mother
  4. Husband, wife and wife's mother; father regresses into infancy and wife becomes mother to own father

Extremely Difficult Plot/Relationships

  1. Husband, wife and husband's boyfriend; husband is regressed into infancy and wife becomes mother, husband's boyfriend becomes wife's husband. (Note: This plot is difficult to manage because of the implausibility of a gay man switching his sexual attentions from men to women and the inherent tension between the wife and the boyfriend caused by the competition for the husband)
  2. Husband, wife and husband's boyfriend; wife is regressed into infancy and men become caregivers (Note: This can be made to work if either man is changed into a woman and becomes the wife and mother.)

Unmarried Relationships

Adult unmarried combinations: These mirror those of married relationships and can be treated similarly

Married Parent-Child Relations

  1. Father/Mother-daughter: daughter regresses into infancy
  2. Father/Mother-daughter: mother regresses into infancy and daughter becomes mother and wife to father. (This plot is incestuous and is viewed as pornographic by most people. Authors should stay well away from this storyline.)
  3. Father/Mother-daughter: father regresses into infancy and daughter becomes big sister.
  4. Father/Mother-son: son regresses into infancy
  5. Father/Mother-son: mother regresses into infancy and son becomes big brother. (This plot is difficult unless the husband finds a girlfriend or wife to act as mother.)
  6. Father/Mother-son: father regresses into infancy and son becomes big brother.
  7. Single Parent-Child Relations

  8. Mother-daughter: daughter regresses into infancy. (If the daughter is a young teenager, then there are no problems. If the daughter is thirty or more, then the mother's approximate age of fifty presents a problem. Not only will the mother lack the energy to properly care for the child, but she will be a senior citizen by the time her daughter ages to the mid-teens again. Authors should regress both mother and daughter to make this storyline work if the characters are both adults.)
  9. Mother-daughter: mother regresses into infancy and daughter becomes mother. (This plot is difficult because of a child's lack of education and experience with being an adult. There will also be problems creating a believable job that the superannuated child can perform. If the child is twenty or older, then the plot is workable.)
  10. Mother-son: son regresses into infancy. (See relationship 7 for explanation of writing problems.)
  11. Mother-son: mother regresses into infancy and son becomes father. (This plot is virtually impossible unless the son is twenty or older and has a girlfriend to act as mother.)
  12. Father-daughter: daughter regresses into infancy (Somewhat difficult as men aren't seen as good caretakers. If the father has a girlfriend to act as mother, then the plot can be easily managed.)
  13. Father-daughter: father regresses into infancy and daughter becomes mother. (See relationship 8 for explanation of writing problems. This plot is difficult unless the daughter is twenty or older, then the plot is workable.)

Important Note: The author should clearly state how the family will be supported if the breadwinner is regressed into infancy.





Lifestyle Changes that a Character Who is Rejuvenated into Infancy Will Experience:

The reader is impacted by the following changes that the character undergoes as he is regressed into infancy:

  1. Change in size: The world becomes a huge and frightening place.
  2. Change in appearance: Other characters treat the character as an infant by virtue of his infantile state.
  3. Change in emotions: Because of the severe emotional stress placed on the character, he will undergo a similar emotional regression even if his mind remains intact. Regressive emotional reactions include weeping, crying, throwing tantrums and being "difficult". Often a need to be held or comforted will manifest itself. The character's mind may be plagued by nightmares and dark foreboding thoughts induced by the tremendous increase in mental energy and the huge number of newly formed synapses. (See item 13: Change in mental abilities.) Sometimes an aggressive male will become submissive and need the physical comfort of being held as if he was a real infant.
  4. Change in surroundings: Most often, the regressed character must sleep in a nursery. (Note: The emotional distress is compounded if the nursery was the character's "private" room, such as a man's den or a woman's sewing room.) He may also spend part or most of his day during the week at a Daycare Center.
  5. Change in clothing: The switch to baby clothing emphasizes the character's regression, but the MOST important item of clothing to be considered is the diaper. No other article of clothing has the emotional impact on the reader that a diaper has. Since childhood, people are conditioned to believe that diapers symbolize a childish lack of control and dependence. The AR author should detail diaper changes carefully to focus attention on the character's need to be cared for. The first diaper changes will be the most traumatic, so the author should carefully describe the character's emotions as he is being undressed, cleansed and rediapered.
  6. Change in food: The character will be forced to eat baby food and drink juice and formula from either baby bottles or sippy cups.
  7. Change in habits: The character will have to ride in strollers or the baby seat of grocery baskets if he is taken shopping, he will be strapped into a baby seat in the rear of the car while in an automobile, he will be fed while strapped into a high chair, he'll sleep in a crib and he'll be allowed to play freely behind the walls of a playpen. The character will also be forced to take daytime naps to supplement his nightly sleep for a total of twelve hours of sleep during a twenty-four hour period.
  8. Change in relationships: A husband may find his wife becoming his mother or a wife may become her husband's mistress's baby, etc. A parent's daughter may become his or her sister or mother.
  9. Change in power: As an infant, the character will no longer be allowed to make any decisions in his life. A useful techniques for emphasizing the loss of power is to have the character be forced to sign a Full Power-of-Attorney over to his caretaker.
  10. Change in physical abilities: A character may be forced to crawl to cross a room, will have difficulties picking up objects, will discover that minor barriers are insurmountable, won't be able to open a door, etc.
  11. Change in bodily control: Drooling, peeing and pooping, but also involuntary thumbsucking. The inability to pronounce words, lisping or the complete loss of ability to speak.
  12. Change in peers: Often, the character will be relegated to a Daycare Center or be forced to share a playpen with the babies of his mother's friends.
  13. Change in mental abilities (optional): The character's mind may descend into infancy as well. While some writers have insisted that the smallness of an infant's brain would necessarily cause the character's mind to deteriorate there is no scientific rationale behind this theory. This notion is based on the false premise that size alone determines the mental capacity of the brain. Actually, the ability to reason is based upon the number of axon-dendritic synaptic connections between neurons.

At birth a baby's brain contains 100 billion neurons and a trillion glial cells (which form a protective, nourishing "honeycomb" structure around the neurons. The number of neurons and glial cells remain relatively constant throughout an individual's life.

In the first few months after birth the brain's higher centers experience an explosive growth of synapses, until at the age of two the brain has twice the number of synapses that are found in an adult brain. Energy consumption of the brain peaks at age two and is double the energy consumption of an adult brain. Average synaptic densities of 15,000 per neuron are maintained from the age of two until at the age of ten or eleven, when the number begins a drastic decline. Over the next three years, the brain ruthlessly destroys it's weakest synapses. Afterwards, the catabolic "pruning" of synapses slows until the average synaptic density levels out at 7,500 per neuron by the age of eighteen.

If the regression process does not disturb the synapses themselves, but merely adds to their density then there is no a priori neurophysiological reason a character's mind should regress along with his body. The tremendous psychological pressures on the individual's psyche may cause the character's mind to regress as a coping mechanism, but mental regression is not mandated by rejuvenation alone.

If, on the other hand, the memories that are encoded into the synapses are affected by the rejuvenation process, then mental deterioration is inevitable. This is analogous to the destructive process that the brain tissue of patient's with Alzheimer's Disease suffer from. As the lesions grow and the individual's memory is slowly wiped away, the patient becomes increasingly childlike and infantile. Infantile reflexes reappear one-by-one as the patient's brain devolves through babyhood into early infancy. The final stage of Alzheimer's Disease is coma followed by a quick death.

If the author elects to have an adult mind regress, he should make the character's cultural philosophy devolve as well. (See cultural notes below.)

Development of Culture in a Child

The human mind undergoes a cultural evolution as it matures that parallels the cultural matrix into which the individual is born. For example, a newborn infant is controlled to a large degree by the R-brain (reptilian brain), which evolves within weeks into a L-brain (primate) controlled individual. Following this development, a recognition of the nuclear (father-mother) rudimentary tribe evolves, and soon after the tribe expands into a clan (Mother as leader [the father is the secondary leader] with a number of male and female members consisting of grandparents, siblings, friends of mother and their children.) until speech begins. Once a baby has acquired speech, the mindset of a barbarian begins until the awakening of social consciousness (early tribal democracy with tribal Judges or Rulers) at the approximate age of seven. During this time, the social paradigm shifts to that of a paternal tribe (except in rural areas of Scotland where social matriarchy is still practiced) at the approximate age of five. The child's cultural mindset evolves into a monarchy at about ten with the father as King and the mother as Queen. At thirteen to fifteen, the child begins to develop the anarchistic tendencies of early Western Democracies which develops into feelings of revolution by age seventeen. Between the age of eighteen to twenty, the young adult becomes a social reformer, usually of a socialist type. At this point, they are convince of the utter verity of their beliefs. Sometime before the age of thirty-five, the individual becomes more moderate and less extreme in their reformist beliefs. As the individual becomes middle-aged, his social paradigm becomes more conservative with each passing year until his death.

Important Note: AR authors should be aware that just as fetal development parallels the evolutionary process during human gestation, i.e., the fetus begins as a single-celled organism, divides to become a multicellular blastula, grows gills and a tail and then loses them during it's development into a recognizable human form so does the cultural identity of the individual parallel the evolutionary history of his culture.







Appendix A


Writing Tips


  1. Don’t use multiple punctuation unless you really need it. Example: "Hi!!!!!! What’s new??????? I’m fine......." Multiple punctuation is like profanity; it’s perfectly acceptable to use it appropriately in a story, but overuse destroys its effect. Save it for when you have to be very expressive.
  2. Don’t bring in characters you don’t intend to use in the story. It complicates the plot unnecessarily. This is not a hard and fast rule (especially for surprise endings), but should be recognized as a general guideline. If you do bring them in, they MUST have a creditable reason within the story to be present and show their own line of development.
  3. Talk to yourself! Go to a private place and read your story dialog out loud. If the dialog sounds silly, it probably is. Revise or delete silly dialog. Remember that the direct dialog of everyday speech sounds stupid in retrospect - which it is. Most people grunt, point, make faces and speak in monosyllables throughout their day in a thoroughly boring fashion.
  4. Think about what you want your characters to say and find an ENTERTAINING way of having them talk. Think of how many times you've told yourself after a conversation, "I wish I said that instead of ….!" A writer's characters should speak as if they had all the time in the world to come up with exactly the right riposte at the precisely the right moment. Use indirect allusions and dialect to make their speech more colorful.

  5. Separate dialog. Begin a new paragraph when another character begins to speak. Introduce your dialog with statements such as he said, she thought, they shouted, John exclaimed, Clara whined, she whispered, etc., etc. Your short descriptions take the place of body language and facial expressions; use them as often as you can.
  6. Watch your grammar. You can have your characters speak in whatever jargon or kant you want, in as low a grammar as you’d like, but the writing surrounding the dialog must be grammatical. Otherwise you appear like an semi-literate idiot to your readers.
  7. Change your plot, plot devices, character names and anything else common to other stories you’ve written with every story. Find something new to describe in each story to titillate your readers. If you write a lot, keep a list of names that you've used. Pick a new familial relationship and new name. Find new locals for the action. Observe how women treat their babies at the grocery store, park and in the Mall to give you new scenes. Carry a small notebook to jot down notes.
  8. Justify everything you do to your characters. Good stories are really morality plays. Unless the reader is looking for pornography, the reader may reasonably expect a premise, moral lesson and meaning to a story as well as a storyline, plot (and subplots) and dialog. If the protagonist is cruel, he must be punished by the end of the story. If the protagonist is tortured unjustly, then the perpetrator must be punished. Justice is the soul of a good morality play.
  9. Note: This is particularly important with the new decency codes on the InterNet. As long as evil is punished, it’s art. If the good are harmed without retribution, it’s perverse. This isn’t my viewpoint alone, this is the considered opinion of constitutional scholars regarding the definition of pornography. The use of a moral in a story gives it "redeeming social value".

  10. Watch your verb tenses; they must agree! If the story is told in the past tense, however, direct quotes must be rendered in the tense in which the speaker would have spoken them at the time. Example: She exclaimed, "What is he up to?". Not: She exclaimed, "What was he up to?".
  11. Be careful in layering of adjectives and adverbs. Synonymous adjectives in a string sound ridiculous if you’re not careful. Blend your adjectives to create a particular mood or describe an object or scene.
  12. Use upper case dialog only for describing shouting or raised voices, otherwise you won’t have any way to show this in your text when you need it. EVERYTHING will look the same to the reader.
  13. Develop subplots. If an idea is good enough to mention in your story, it’s probably worth developing beyond a paragraph. Subplots can give color and meaning to a story. They can also help you develop your theme.
  14. Describe, Describe, Describe! A description of the character’s clothing is good, but don’t overdo it. Too much of a good thing can be overwhelming. Do describe the time of day, the room setting, the expression on the character’s faces, etc. Let the reader see, smell and feel your world. Paint a picture with your words. Guide your reader through your imaginings with the eloquence of your words.
  15. Describe laughter, don’t put it in dialog. Let your reader imagine the characters laugh. Say for example, "she laughed gaily" or "he chuckled shrewdly", not "HaHaHaHaHaHa". Leave that sort of writing for comic book writers.


Appendix B:

An AR Author's List of Rejuvenation Devices

The story device that causes the character's rejuvenation has a tendency to drive the story in and of itself. The author should make the proper selection of a rejuvenating device which fits the storyline. Body swapping is not a true type of regression and leads to a number of plot problems; How will the infant mind handle an adult body? What will become of the character with a baby's mind and an adult body? Obviously, the individual will have to be cared for in some way. A likely resolution is that the individual will have to be placed in a nursing home or mental hospital. The problem of moral justification arises as well. The baby cannot have done anything to justify it's punishment by being placed in an adult body. For that reason, body swapping with infants makes a poor plot.


  1. Common magickal types: Earth (Wiccan), Ceremonial Christian, Ceremonial Egyptian, Ceremonial Enochian, Runic, Huna, Aztec, Voudoun, Hoodoo, Brujheria, Santeria, Animist, Alchemist, Tantric and Amerindian
  1. Magickal water; i.e., the Fountain of Youth
  2. Written Spells: Must be in a language that is pronounceable by the speaker, the author should delineate why a speaker can understand a language other than his native tongue. Magickal chants fall into this category. Either the speaker will understand the meaning of the spell or the spell will be so obtuse that the speaker will not understand that someone will be regressed as a consequence.
  3. Spoken Spells: In general, they should be cast be human magick users, i.e., magicians and witches. If they are not, then they should be tied to a wish given by a greater power (See items C & G) or be in the native language of the speaker unless prior preparation has been made for the understanding of foreign language by the author. In general, the speaker should be aware that he/she is regressing his victim.
  4. Magickal amulets, rings, bracelets, also lamps and bottles associated with genies.
  5. Should have warning runes or hieroglyphs to alert the user, but since most characters are not scholars, they cannot interpret the warnings. They can be used with or without the desire of the user to be regressed.

  6. Magickal powders, salves, candles, dusts, perfumes and potions
  7. May be composed of beeswax, herbs, mushrooms, barks, seeds, leaves, flower petals, graveyard dust, ground up gems or minerals, plant oils, animal or fish fat, parts of plants, animals or fish with an enchantment laid over the items. Generally these are part of earth magick but can be any of the other species of magick. They can be used with or without the desire of the user to be regressed.

  8. Odd magickal objects such as Crystal Skulls; should have warnings (at least as legendary fables) displayed about them or explained to the purchaser/thief before the transfer of possession. They can be employed with or without the desire of the user to be regressed.
  9. Enchanted ordinary items like clothing or costumes. No warnings. They can be used with or without the desire of the user to be regressed.
  10. Gods, demons, genies, leprechauns and other quasi-mythical creatures; Should only be used to produce cosmic or poetic justice. Desires of the caller may or may not have any effect on the outcome.
  11. Yogas and Tantric practices: Regression with these devices can only come with the hard work and desire of the user.
  1. Scientific
  1. Genetic Modification: Beginning with the use of viruses as a vector to replace parts of the cellular DNA with plasmids by an intentional viral infection, this is becoming a more prevalent story device. Since the means of active genetic modification are growing daily, the author should keep apprized of recent developments in genetic research.
  2. Age reducing "rays" or radiation: Early science Fiction device and somewhat hackneyed. Unless an author researches and validates a known form of radiation, it should be avoided.
  3. Nanotechnology: The use of infinitesimal silicon robots to modify a human at the molecular level..
  4. Parallel universe shifting: Shifting into parallel universes where the protagonist is still an infant
  5. Hormonal compounds: The "usual" scientific means of regressing a human.
  6. Aliens: Unless the aliens and their motivations are clearly delineated at the outset of the story, the storyline is a cheap hack.
  7. Lucid dreaming: Must contain strong definitions of "lucid dreaming" and the holographic qualities of the universe.
  8. Fruits or eatables with the power to reverse aging: A cheap hack.


Appendix C

Baby Accouterments:

A Writer's List of Furnishings and Supplies for the Fantasy Infant

(Note: Since the list is divided both by need and type, many items are repeated. Not all are required for infant care, many are optional or dependent on the age of the baby.)

Furniture; a playpen, a crib, mattress and crib sheet, a padded crib bumper, a baby gate, a dresser with changing pad, a nursery lamp for the dresser or armoire, a short armoire, a rocking chair, a high chair, a bouncer-walker, a playpen, a toy chest and a potty chair.

Clothes; playsuits, rompers, crawlers, one-piece suits, onsies, tee-shirts (lap-shouldered and side-snapped), cloth diapers, diaper covers, plastic panties, socks, baby shoes (baby leather shoes, baby sneakers, baby sandals), sleeping bags and sleepers for both infant boys and girls. Also gowns, nighties, dresses, baby bonnets, and baby-sized mary-janes for baby girls. Down-filled one-piece suits, jackets, mittens and pants for cold weather.

Linens per baby; A dozen sheets, a comforter, a crib blanket, a receiving blanket, baby bath towels, a dozen terry and plastic bibs, a half-dozen lap pads, a dozen drooling bibs, and two dozen washcloths.

Feeding Accessories; a high chair, baby bottles, sippy (tippy) cups, two dozen nipples, feeding spoons and plates, an electrical bottle warmer, a plastic feeding mat for the floor underneath the high chair, baby food storage racks, a nipple and pacifier rack for the automatic dishwasher, nipple and bottle brushes, jarred baby food, canned or powdered formula, a dozen terry and plastic bibs, a half-dozen lap pads, and an "over the shoulder" cloth diaper for burping the baby.

Diaper changing Accessories; a jar of vaseline, a container of baby powder, Diaperene, cloth or disposable diapers, diaper pins, a bar of baby soap to stick ends of diaper pins in to keep them sharp, rust-free and to lubricate them, baby wipes, and a dirty diaper pail or Genie diaper disposal system.

Bathing Accessories; a baby seat and sponge pad for the bathroom tub, baby shampoo and soap, baby bubble bath, washcloths and baby bath towels, q-tips, and bath toys.

Nursery Accessories; an electronic nursery audio monitor and/or CCD video camera/monitor, pacifiers (dummies), a dirty diaper pail, a Genie diaper disposal system, nursery curtains, wallpaper borders and appliqués to decorate the nursery walls, mobiles for both the crib and changing station, a night light, story and picture books, tapes of nursery rhymes, and soft toys.

Accessories for the sick baby; humidifier, pacifier with integral thermometer, rectal thermometer, electronic (ear) thermometer, eyedropper, nasal syringe, pacifier with integral medicine dropper for administering oral medication, laxative suppositories, Children's Tylenol, Ducolax liquid drops, Pedilyte, etc.

General Accessories; electrical outlet covers, cabinet locks and organizers for washing baby socks

Travel/Outing Accessories; a diaper bag, a cloth high chair for traveling, a baby seat for the car, a protective plastic seat cover to go under the baby seat in the car, insulated bottle boots (warmers), 12 volt DC bottle warmer that plugs into an automotive cigarette lighter outlet, baby bottles filled with formula and or juice, disposable diapers, baby wipes, small towels, disposable plastic bags for temporary storage and discardment of disposable diapers, small containers of vaseline and baby powder, a folding portable playpen/crib, pacifiers (dummies), toys, jarred baby food, a feeding spoon, disposable feeding bibs, canned formula, a (folding) can opener, spare T-shirts, baby bonnet, a baby buggy (carriage) and a stroller. A ribbon with a pacifier tied to one end while the other end is tied to a diaper pin for affixing a pacifier to a baby's T-shirt or sleeper while in the stroller or baby seat.


Appendix D

An Adult Gourmet's Professional Taste Evaluation of Commercial Baby Food

As a service to those authors who do not wish to carry out their own investigations of the taste of prepared baby foods, I induced a gourmet friend who has written cooking columns and has been a professional restaurant critic to taste-test some of the Gerber Mixed Meals. He has some renown at being able to replicate almost any recipe by mere taste alone. As a critic, he can identify and tell a chef which ingredient was too prominent in the recipe for perfect balance. He has reported back the following:

Vegetables and Veal: The dinner had a strong aroma of vegetable beef soup when first opened. The veal had the low flavor of canned commercial (grade 3) beef which lent nothing to the overall quality. The concoction had a high percentage of potatoes which was discernable by taste and texture alone. There was a hint of powdered dried onion in the mixture. The meal had a "mealy" texture that was caused by both the potatoes and finely ground beef. The complete absence of salt in this dinner made it totally unpalatable. While I could see a baby eating this, I would not willingly eat this particular concoction again.

Vegetables and Turkey: The dinner had a strong aroma of vegetable soup with a slight hint of Turkey when first opened. The concoction had a high percentage of potatoes and peas which was discernable by taste alone. The "mealy" texture of the potatoes and finely ground turkey was accentuated by the peas in the mixture. I found that the texture was particularly disagreeable in this dinner. As in the first dinner, the absolute absence of salt made the taste/texture combination abhorrent. As before, I can see this as a reasonable dish for an infant, but I would not willingly partake of this meal again.

Mixed Vegetables Dinner: The dinner had a strong aroma of vegetable soup when first opened. Like the Vegetable and Turkey dinner, the concoction had a high percentage of potatoes and peas which was discernable by taste alone. There was an objectionable "mealy" texture of the potatoes and peas in the mixture. I found that the texture was particularly disagreeable in this dinner. As in the other dinners I sampled, the absolute absence of salt made the taste/texture combination abhorrent.

Vegetables and Ham: The dinner had a strong aroma of vegetable soup when first opened. When I placed the first spoonful of the mixture in my mouth, I was assaulted by a slightly dead, rancid flavor of tainted pork. I refused to complete the test on this sample, believing it to be spoiled. I threw it out as inedible.



Appendix E

Babble and Babytalk

A Writer's Guide to Creating Childish Dialog

Writing good dialog is a difficult art. Fortunately, there are reference books available for most of the well known dialects that make it relatively easy for the aspiring writer to research and get a "feel" for the speech he is trying to duplicate. In the case of Babytalk, there aren't any materials readily available. The consensus of opinion seems to be that a youngster should be trained out of Babytalk as soon as possible and that publishing a book describing the vagaries and vocabulary of Babytalk is a waste of paper. It is my earnest hope that this resource will be of some assistance to other writers wanting to duplicate baby speech.




Babytalk Structure


Grammatical Structure

Pre-speech Vocalizations and Sound Effects

Regressive Speech

Organization and Formatting of Infant Dialog

Word Choice Criteria



Babytalk Lexicon

Adult Words & Infant Idioms

Descriptive Words & Definitions



Babytalk Structure



Grammatical Structure


Note: Both nouns and verbs should be pluralized as if they were regular


Other Parts of Speech


Sentence Structure



Pre-speech Vocalizations and Sound Effects


Regressive Speech

Occasionally one wants to create a scene in which the protagonist is fully aware while he is undergoing regression and attempts to make a final statement or plea for mercy. This can be simply achieved by elongating the words with repeated vowels and substituting "w" for the initial "l" and "r" sounds. The "th" sound may be replaced with a "z" in some cases, but often that substitution makes the dialog difficult to read. Drop the final hard consonants from the words and insert periods to indicate difficulty in enunciation.

For example; Take the final statement, "No! Stop! Don't turn me into a baby! I'm sorry! I'll be good! I promise! Please? No! Make me a man again, for the love of God! gaaaaa…maga-goo..napa….baaaaaa….waaaaaaaaaa!!!" and apply the changes.

This becomes after transformation, "Nooooo…stooooop!…!…'mmmm sowie!… goooo…i..pwomisss…pleeeeease?…..nooooooooo!… aga…fo..zee..wuv..o'..gaa!… gaaaaa…maga-goo..napa….baaaaaa….waaaaaaaaaa!!!"


Organization and Formatting of Infant Dialog

Proper organization of your infant's dialog will allow the writer to express much more complex ideas with pseudo-babytalk than could an average infant. The trick is to appear to be writing in babytalk while one is actually using a modified form of adult dialog. Several techniques may be employed together to create the illusion that one is reading actual infant speech. For example, childish spelling may be used that harkens back to the phonetic spelling used by young school children, i.e., "luv" could be used in the place of "love". Deliberate misspelling make also be employed to demonstrate the baby's inability to form sounds with his vocal apparatus. (See the Pronunciation section for examples.) Sound words such as bang or boom can also heighten the feeling that one is listening to a small child. If the baby is talking to himself, then capitalization may be dropped to make the dialog appear more childish to the eye. Another useful technique is to use adult dialog in parallel with baby dialog. The writer can describe a scene in which the adults are talking in normal dialog while the infant is either thinking to himself or trying to communicate with the adults. The contrast of the adult dialog with the baby's poor linguistic efforts will make the babytalk seem that much more clumsy.

All these techniques can be employed together to produce a convincing simulation of infant speech. Increasing the number of techniques while reducing and regressing the perceived vocabulary of the speaker can be combined with the description of the diminishing perspicacity of the protagonist to produce a satisfying depiction of rejuvenation into infancy.


Word Choice Criteria

The vocabulary of small children is extremely limited. For example: At 9-12 months the average vocabulary is 4-5 words. At 15-18 months the average vocabulary is 5-10 words. At 2-3 years the average vocabulary is 300 words. They begin making short sentences at this point and construct short phrases like, "What's that?", "Where's dolly?", "No want!" and "Mommy go!". The average toddler of 3 has a vocabulary of 450 words, can match 3-4 colors and knows the difference between big and little. Care should be given to the appropriate word choice for the age which you are describing. The following lexicon may be used as a resource to common baby usages.

Speech Development as a Function of Age

2 months vocal response to familiar voices

4 months can make the consonant sounds: n, k, p, g, b

6 months starts to imitate sounds

6 months sounds resemble one-syllable words

9 months can respond to simple commands

9 months understands the meaning of no

9-12 months a four to five word vocabulary besides "ma-ma" and "da-da". These are usually members of the set of infantile words in order of probability of occurrence: {ma-ma, da-da, ba-ba, bye-bye, No!, binkie, wet, ca-ca, and dydee} The pronouns me and you will not be used until the baby matures.

15-18 months have a five to ten word vocabulary. These are usually words selected from the immediate post-infantine set of words in order of probability of occurrence: {ma-ma (mommy), da-da (daddy), ba-ba, bye-bye, No!, binkie, wet, ca-ca, dydee, good, bad, boy, girl, bo-bo [teddy bear], dolly and dogie} aside from the pronouns me and you which are used when the baby becomes 18 months of age.

At 24 to 36 months, the child has achieved a 300 word vocabulary which is considered by most ligusits to be the minimum number of words necessary in order to communicate basic needs in any language.




An Abbreviated Lexicon of Infantine Words

ba-ana n. banana
ba-ba n. bottle
baby adj. young
binkie n. pacifier
birdie n. bird
blankie n. blanket
bo-bo n. bear, usu. teddy bear
boo-boo n.1. mistake 2. injury
bunny n. rabbit
bye-bye interj. goodbye
ca-ca n. feces
chi-chi n. milk
chip-chips n. potato chips
choo-choo n. train
da-da n. father
daddy n. father
din-din n. dinner
doggy n. dog
dolly n. doll
duckie n. duck
dydee (also didee) n. diaper
fishy (also fishie) n. fish
flutterbyes n. butterflies
her pron. 1. her (first-person singular feminine objective-case pronoun) 2. She (first-person singular feminine nominative-case pronoun).
him pron. 1. him (first-person singular masculine objective-case pronoun) 2. He (first-person singular masculine nominative-case pronoun)
hims adj. his (first-person singular masculine possessive adjective)
horsie n. horse
keecat n. cat ( kitty + cat )
keycars n. car keys
kitty n. cat
ma-ma n. mother
mommy n. mothermore adj. 1) a greater amount 2) may be used as a demand to be served as in "More!"
nana n. 1. A nanny, nurse, or nursemaid 2. Grandmother
night-night n. sleep interj. Goodnight
nima n. mother
nummy adj. delicious, good tasting
num-num adj. delicious, good tasting
 oops interj. a mistake
 ouch interj. an expresssion of pain
owie n. injury interj. Ouch!
panties n. pants
pa-pa n. father
peekaboo n. 1.The infant game of face hiding. 2. To peer out.
pee-pee n. 1. urine 2. penis
po-po n. The posterior, derriere, buttocks
poo-poo n. feces
potty n. toilet
puppy n. 1. dog 2. (esp. small children) any four-legged animal
sanwich n. sandwich
tato n. potato
tee-tee n. urine
tummy n. 1. abdomen 2. stomach
tum-tum n. 1. abdomen 2. stomach
tushie n. 1. The posterior, derriere, buttocks. 2. The anus.
uh-oh interj. a mistake
walkies n. A walk
wa-wa n. water
wee-wee n. urine
wetties adj. wet
 yuccy adj. offensive



Adult Words in Common Use by Babies

cookie candy juice

Sound Effects Words

Bang! Ding, ding! Crash! Bow-wow!

Beep, Beep! Vroom, vroom! tweet, tweet!


"All fall down!" Idiom: He, she or it has fallen over or down.

"All gone!" Idiom: vanished, finished, completed, not present


"Go pee-pee!" Idiom: To urinate

"Go poo-poo!" Idiom: To defecate

"Go walkies!" Idiom: To go for a walk



Additional Words that an Age Regression Writer May Find Useful in Describing a Nursery or Baby Furnishings

baby buggy: noun, (US), A baby carriage.

babydoll dress: noun, A very short infant or toddler dress with little to no waist, usually made with puffed sleeves.

baby seat: noun, a specially constructed seat for infants and small children that is secured to the safety belt of an auto.

babble: noun, 1.To utter indistinct, meaningless sounds. 2. To make a continuous low, murmuring sound.

bassinet: noun, A small basket-like bed for infants.

binkie: noun, (US, infantile), A pacifier, named after company that made a popular brand of pacifiers.

Birdseye: noun, A type of fabric used in infant wear whose weave is characterized by repeated small diamonds with small depressions in the center, the appearance of this pattern is that of a stylized bird's eye.

blanket sleeper: noun, A sleeper made with a soft, heavy velour material, see sleeper

blathering: verb, To speak nonsensically.

bootie: also bootee, noun, A soft, usually knitted shoe for a baby.

bottle-feed: verb, To feed, as a baby, with a bottle.

breast-feed: verb, To feed (a baby) mother's milk from the breast; suckle.

bunting bag: noun, An insulated, one-piece garment that encloses the legs together, with sleeves and hood. Usually zippered down the center of the front.

burp: noun, A belch, verb. burped, burping., burps. intransitive verb, To belch. transitive verb, To cause (a baby) to belch, esp. after feeding.

carriage (baby): noun, A four wheeled conveyance with bedding that allows an infant to be transported laying down.

cereal feeder: noun, A baby bottle fitted with a nipple with an oversized hole or X-cut nipple to allow pasty foods such as puréed cereal to be sucked through the nipple. Made with a sliding bottom fitting that allows the caregiver to apply pressure at the bottom to assist the baby's feeding.

changing pad: noun, A waterproof pad used under an infant while changing a baby's diaper

changing table: noun, A table or platform for changing a baby's diaper.

cot: noun, (Brit.), A crib

cradle: noun, A small, low bed for an infant, often furnished with rockers, verb,-dled., -dling., -dles. transitive verb, 1. To place or hold in or as if in a cradle. 2. To care for or nurture in infancy.

crawler: noun, A long-sleeved, one-piece garment, usually front-opening, with elastic cuffs at wrists and ankles.

crawling: verb, To move slowly by dragging the body along the ground without the use of the legs.

crèche: noun, (Brit.), A foundling hospital, a day nursery, a daycare center.

creeping: verb, To move on hands and knees with the body close to the ground.

crib: noun, (US), A small bed enclosed on the sides by lattice or bars.

crinoline: noun, A stiff fabric used to make skirts in infants and toddler dresses.

daycare center: noun, (US), nursery for the care of infants and small children during the day.

diaper: noun, A piece of cloth or other absorbent material, folded and pinned around a baby to serve as underpants, -verb, to put a diaper on (a baby).

drooling bib: noun, A terrycloth or absorbent cloth bib used to soak up a baby's drool.

dry nurse: noun, A nurse employed to care for an infant without breast-feeding it.

dummy: noun, (Brit.), A pacifier.

empire waistline: an extremely high waistline used in toddler's baby doll dresses. The waistline is usually set halfway between the hip and the shoulders. This has the effect of making the wearer's torso appear proportionally shorter as well as exposing the undergarments of the wearer. Since the underwear of small children are frequently rhumba panties or diapers, the psychological effect of such a high waisted garment is to make the child appear much younger to the causal observer than her actual age. If the child's limb proportions have developed beyond early childhood, the short skirt length will make the child's legs look longer and expose the fraud. In the later case, the garment would give the child a ridiculous or absurd appearance of superannuated infancy.

feces: n. Solid waste, excreted by an animal. Usually referred to as potty, crap, po-po, ca-ca, number 2, etc.

feeding bib: noun, a plastic or fabric bib used during a baby's feeding.

feeding spoon: noun, A small spoon with a protective rubber coating used for feeding infants.

fitted diaper: noun, diaper manufactured with an hourglass shape to fit the curves of the body.

flannelette: noun, A soft cotton cloth with a nap, used chiefly for diapers, baby clothes and underclothing.

formula: noun, A liquid food prescribed for an infant and containing most required nutrients.

gate (child or baby): noun, A protective gate mounted across a door way, stairs, etc., to prevent access by small children.

gibber: noun, To speak rapidly and unintelligibly.

gurgle: verb, To make a bubbling sound.

high chair: noun, An elevated chair with an integral tray and safety strap used to hold an infant for feeding.

hooded towel: noun, A square towel, with a triangular flap at one corner which is used to cover the head.

infant: noun, A very young child who has not learned to speak; (newborn to ~12 months)

infant school: noun, (Brit.), A kindergarten.

jabber: noun, To talk rapidly and unintelligibly.

jumper: noun, 1. A one-piece garment consisting of an overall-like upper part and a skirt, joined at the waist. 2. A padded seat that hangs from a door frame with a clamp attached to three spring-loaded straps used as an infant exerciser.

jumpsuit: A one-piece outer-garment, usually with long sleeves and legs with snapped seams at the legs and crotch.

kimono: A sleeved, robe-like garment that opens in the front. Usually ties at bottom with a drawstring.

kindergarten: noun, (US), a school that educates with games and toys children from the age of 3 to 6 years.

lapped shoulders/collar: a style typically used in infant T-shirt where the shoulders are formed by two pieces of overlapping fabric so that the collar can be opened fully by pulling the front and back of the collar open.

layette: A set of clothing and equipment for an infant. Usually consisting of gowns, slip-on shirts, snap side shirts, onesies, drooling bibs, washcloths, towel and booties when bought as a set. Generically; an infant's wardrobe.

mess: noun, feces, verb, To defecate, usually into or on an object. Soil.

messy: Soiled, containing or marked by feces.

nappy: (Brit.) A diaper.

nickers: n., a pant-like garment that extends from the waist to the top of the knee.

Nuk: noun, A manufacturer of orthodontic baby bottle nipples that simulate a human breast. Generically, an orthodontic nipple.

nurser: noun, A baby bottle.

nursery: noun, 1. A room or area set apart for the use of children. 2. A nursery school. 3. A place for the temporary care of children.

nursery school: noun, A school for children who are not old enough to attend kindergarten.

onesie: noun, A one piece garment similar to a T-shirt, with extensions that connect with snaps or velcro pads under the crotch.

overall: noun, A one piece garment consisting of a pair of pants with sections to cover the front and pack of the chest. These sections are connected by straps which pass over the shoulders. Usually made with snaps running the length of the inseam of the legs from one cuff to the other.

pacifier: noun, A rubber or plastic nipple or teething ring for a baby to suck or chew on.

panty: n., a garment, usually an feminine undergarment, covering the abdomen from waist to hip. It is usually loose fitting, but drawn with elastic at the waist and leg openings.

pinafore: noun, A sleeveless gown that fastens in back, often worn as an outer covering.

perambulator: noun, (Brit.), A baby carriage.

playpen: noun, A portable enclosure in which a baby can be left to play.

play-yard: noun, see playpen.

prate: noun, To chatter

prattle: noun, 1. To make infantile meaningless sounds, 2. To speak simply and artlessly.

prefold diaper: noun, diaper manufactured with padding in the center to eliminate the need to create an absorbent center fold.

potty: noun, (US, infantile), A small pot for use as a toilet by an infant or young child.

potty chair: noun, (US, infantile), A chair fitted with a small pot for use as a toilet by an infant or young child.

preschool: noun, adjective, A nursery school, Of, pertaining to, or designed for a child of nursery school age.

receiving blanket: noun, A lightweight blanket used to wrap a baby esp. after a bath.

romper: noun, 1. A type of overall with a billowing lower half. 2. A type of short sleeved, legless overall where the bottom section is pulled up between the legs and fastened to the waist.

rhumba panties: noun, A type of (waterproof) panty with rows of frills on the bottom. Usually made in the pull-on style, but sometimes found with side snaps. Generally considered to be a baby girl's attire

rhumba tights: noun, Similar to rhumba panties, but with stocking legs. Usually waterproofed with plastic liner in the crotch area.

rubber duckies: noun, A usually opaque waterproof pant used as a diaper cover.

rugrat: noun, (US, slang), A small child whose chief method of locomotion is creeping or crawling on the floor.

sleeper: noun, A one piece garment of simple construction, usually with long sleeves, sometimes with foot coverings. Usually made with snaps (young infant) or zipper (older baby) running down the inseam of one leg from the foot up the crotch to the neck.

shortall: noun, A one piece garment, similar to an overall , but with short legs. Usually has a snap crotch.

side-snap shirt: noun, a type of T-shirt that opens from collar to bottom hem on one side of the chest which fastens with snaps.

stroller: noun, A four-wheeled conveyance used for shopping which carries the infant in a sitting position.

sunsuit: noun, A pair of shorts that include a form of light chest cover, possibly a overall-like piece or a halter top. Usually made with without snaps, but if present, they run the length of the inseam of the legs.

swaddle: noun, A band or cloth used for swaddling. -transitive verb-dled., -dling., -dles. 1. To wrap or bind in bandages; swathe. 2. To wrap a baby in swaddling clothes.

swaddling clothes: noun, Strips of cloth wrapped around a newborn infant to hold its legs and arms still.

teething ring: noun, A ring of hard rubber or plastic upon which a teething baby can bite.

toddler: noun, A very young child, older than an infant, but still considered a baby, "one who toddles"; baby between the ages of 1 to 3 years old.

topping and tailing: a method of washing a baby where the baby's body is cleaned without removing the baby's clothes entirely; a type of sponge bath.

 walker: noun, A wheeled frame device used to support an infant learning to walk.




Appendix F


Developmental Milestone Chart for Children

Physical, Sensory, Cognitive, Linguistic, & Behavioral Milestones From Birth to Eighteen Years

Physical Milestones Ages 0-1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, 4-5, 5-6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 18+

Sensory/Cognitive Milestones Ages 0-1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, 4-5, 5-6

Linguistic Milestones Ages 0-1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, 4-5, 5-6

Social Behavioral Milestones Ages 0-1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, 4-5, 5-6

From Birth to Age One

4 – 8 Tbsp / day cereal

16 – 20 Tbsp / day fruits, vegetables, & meats

6 Tbsp / day cereal

18 – 20 Tbsp / day fruits, breads, vegetables, meats, finger foods

6-8 Tbsp / day cereal

18 – 24 Tbsp / day fruits, breads, vegetables, meats, finger foods

Between One and Two

Between Two and Three

Between Three and Four

Between Four and Five

Between Five and Six

By Age Seven

By Age Eight

By Age Nine

By Age Ten

By Age Eleven

By Age Twelve

By Age Thirteen

By Age Fourteen

By Age Fifteen

By Age Sixteen

By Age Seventeen

By Age Eighteen

Above Age Eighteen


  1. Note that the weight curve is the 50th percentile for all groups
  2. Note: Between birth and 1 years the child is called an infant, between 1 and 3 years the child is called a toddler, between 3 and 5 years the child is called a preschooler, between 6 and 12 years the child is referred to as a school age child, and between 12-18 years the child is called an adolescent.